Pretesting versus posttesting: Comparing the pedagogical benefits of errorful generation and retrieval practice.

@article{Pan2021PretestingVP,
  title={Pretesting versus posttesting: Comparing the pedagogical benefits of errorful generation and retrieval practice.},
  author={Steven C. Pan and Faria Sana},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Applied},
  year={2021}
}
The use of practice tests to enhance learning, or test-enhanced learning, ranks among the most effective of all pedagogical techniques. We investigated the relative efficacy of pretesting (i.e., errorful generation) and posttesting (i.e., retrieval practice), two of the most prominent practice test types in the literature to date. Pretesting involves taking tests before to-be-learned information is studied, whereas posttesting involves taking tests after information is studied. In five… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Prior episodic learning and the efficacy of retrieval practice
TLDR
Results support the hypothesis that the advantage of testing over restudy is independent of the degree of prior episodic learning, and they suggest that educators can apply cued-recall testing with the expectation that its efficacy is similar across varying levels of prior content learning.
LEARNING FROM ERRORS 1 Learning from Errors : Students ’ and Instructors ’ Practices , Attitudes , and Beliefs
In some educational contexts, such as during assess ment , it is essential to avoid errors. In other contexts, however, generating an error can foster v aluable learning opportunities. For instance,
Learning from errors: students’ and instructors’ practices, attitudes, and beliefs
TLDR
Overall, these findings reveal the prevalence of an ambivalent approach to errors: Students and instructors avoid generating errors but prioritise learning from them when they occur.
Does Spelling Still Matter—and If So, How Should It Be Taught? Perspectives from Contemporary and Historical Research
A century ago, spelling skills were highly valued and widely taught in schools using traditional methods, such as weekly lists, drill exercises, and low- and high-stakes spelling tests. That approach
Indirekte Effekte von Abrufübungen – Intuitiv und doch häufig unterschätzt
Aufgaben, die den Abruf von kürzlich gelernten Inhalten erfordern, können das Erinnern dieser Inhalte erleichtern („Testing Effekt“). Abrufaufgaben können aber auch metakognitive, motivationale und

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 101 REFERENCES
Optimizing the Efficacy of Learning Objectives through Pretests
TLDR
Findings suggest that, compared with the passive presentation of LO statements, pretesting (especially without feedback) is a more active method that optimizes learning.
Multiple-choice pretesting potentiates learning of related information
TLDR
The present research examines the effect of using tests prior to study (i.e., as pretests), focusing particularly on how pretesting influences the subsequent learning of information that is not itself pretested but that is related to the pretested information.
Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing?
TLDR
The results suggest that it may be more fruitful to test students after than before exposure to learning content, as post-testing promoted knowledge transfer to previously untested questions, whereas pre-testing did not.
The pretesting effect: do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning?
TLDR
The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning by reading an essay about vision and found that posttest performance was better in the test condition than in the extended study condition in all experiments--a pretesting effect.
Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing
The testing effect is a well-known concept referring to gains in learning and retention that can occur when students take a practice test on studied material before taking a final test on the same
When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent study.
TLDR
It is found that failed tests followed by immediate feedback produced greater retention than did a presentation-only condition and that generating an incorrect response to a cue both activates the semantic network associated with the cue and suppresses the correct response.
Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention
We investigated the effects of format of an initial test and whether or not students received corrective feedback on that test on a final test of retention 3 days later. In Experiment 1, subjects
Retrieval (sometimes) enhances learning: Performance pressure reduces the benefits of retrieval practice
Summary Academic testing has received substantial support as a useful educational activity with robust retention benefits, given that tests can promote retrieval practice. However, testing can
Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement.
Typically, teachers use tests to evaluate students’ knowledge acquisition. In a novel experimental study, we examined whether low-stakes testing (quizzing) can be used to foster students’ learning of
Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis
TLDR
The findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...