Presidents, the Use of Military Force, and Public Opinion

@article{Lian1993PresidentsTU,
  title={Presidents, the Use of Military Force, and Public Opinion},
  author={Bradley Lian and John R. O'neal},
  journal={Journal of Conflict Resolution},
  year={1993},
  volume={37},
  pages={277 - 300}
}
It is conventional wisdom that the public rallies 'round the president when military force is used abroad. Indeed, this belief has encouraged the view that presidents are apt to rattle the saber to divert attention from domestic problems. The rally effect is assessed by measuring the change in the president's popularity following all major uses of force by the United States from 1950 through 1984. Surprisingly, for these 102 cases, the mean change in the president's approval rating is 0%, even… 

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