Preservation of products with MCI/MI in Switzerland

@article{Reinhard2001PreservationOP,
  title={Preservation of products with MCI/MI in Switzerland},
  author={E. Reinhard and Roger Waeber and Markus Niederer and Thomas Maurer and Peter Martin Maly and Sameul Scherer},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={2001},
  volume={45}
}
Preservation of products with the combination of 5‐chloro‐2‐methyl‐4‐isothiazolinone (methylchloroisothiazolinone, MCI) and 2‐methyl‐4‐isothiazolinone (methylisothiazolinone, MI), commercialized as Kathon CG or WT, is widely used. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to the preservative have been described in many publications of epidemiological studies. In addition, a number of allergic, airborne reactions to MCI/MI were observed in recent years. The aim of the presented study was: (i) to… 
Ex vivo human skin permeation of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI)
TLDR
Overall results show that MI in formulations or in aqueous standard solutions quickly permeated the skin with time lags less than 15 min while MCI was much slower (>3.5 h); this confirms that MCI reacts readily with skin and may induce local irritation.
N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA) as metabolite of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 2000 to 2017 - exposure and time trends.
TLDR
There is an increasing time trend in the 95th percentile exposure between 2006 and 2011 with a decrease in recent years, probably reflecting regulatory measures on MI and MCI/MI (3:1) in cosmetic products.
Quantification of a mercapturate metabolite of the biocides methylisothiazolinone and chloromethylisothiazolinone ("M-12") in human urine using online-SPE-LC/MS/MS.
TLDR
A two-dimensional LC/MS/MS method for the quantification of a mercapturic acid metabolite of MI and MCI in human urine and the concentrations of the previously determined metabolite NMMA and M-12 correlated well.
Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.
TLDR
Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.
Quantification of N-methylmalonamic acid in urine as metabolite of the biocides methylisothiazolinone and chloromethylisothiazolinone using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
This method is the first to report human urinary background levels of N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA), a known metabolite of MI and MCI in urine of rats, and the possibility of formation and urinary excretion of NMMA within physiological processes cannot be ruled out.
Analysis of isothiazolinone preservatives in polyvinyl alcohol cooling towels used in Japan
  • T. Kawakami, K. Isama, Y. Ikarashi
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
  • 2014
TLDR
It is suggested that a detailed description of isothiazolinone preservatives in PVA towels and an effective washing procedure for the removal of these preservatives should be provided by the manufacturer.
Urinary excretion kinetics of the metabolite N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA) after oral dosage of chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone in human volunteers
TLDR
Important human toxicokinetic data for the biocides MI and MCI that might be of relevance in future exposure and risk assessments are determined for the first time.
UCZULENIE NA KOSMETYKI. II. ŚRODKI KONSERWUJĄCE
Disinfectants are essential components of body care preparations, household goods and industrial products. They inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. Esters of parahydroxybenzoate acid and products
Airborne contact dermatitis to methylchloroisothia‐zolinone/methylisothiazolinone in a boy
TLDR
Examination of the household wall paint used revealed a concentration of 30 p.p.m. of MCI= MIPatch testing for bronopol, also contained in the wall paint, was negative and the paint contained no formaldehyde; questionable reactions occurred to Peru balsam and formaldehyde.
The methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone metabolite N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA) in urine of children and adolescents in Germany - Human biomonitoring results of the German Environmental Survey 2014-2017 (GerES V).
Mixtures of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone are used as biocides in cosmetics, cleaning agents, and water-based paint. A biomonitoring method to evaluate exposure to these
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TLDR
It is concluded that, under normal use conditions, within the current permitted/recommended use concentrations for MCI/MI of up to 15ppm, the risk of primary sensitization from the use of rinse‐off products is negligible, and elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in MCi/MI‐sensitized individuals rare, after exposure to MCI‐MI‐preserved rinse-off products.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Further support use the previously reported conclusion that use of this new biocide at the very low concentrations required for effective preservation of rinse‐off products involves an extremely low risk of clinical derma loses.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The overall impact of most of the preservatives on public health seems to be low, but for diagnostic reasons preservatives must be included in patch test series.
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