Presentation and prognosis of shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of four cases

  title={Presentation and prognosis of shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of four cases},
  author={D{\'e}bora Cerqueira Calderaro and Gilda Aparecida Ferreira},
  journal={Rheumatology International},
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune systemic disease that commonly affects the respiratory system. Shrinking lung syndrome is a rare respiratory complication associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients present with dyspnea alone or associated with chest pain and orthopnea, lung volume reduction with no parenchymal abnormalities and a restrictive ventilatory defect on pulmonary function tests. The pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of shrinking lung syndrome remain… 

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