In order to determine the frequency of pediculosis in persons living with children diagnosed as positive to Pediculus capitis in educational institutions of the "Carmelo" People's Council, the houses of 58 children who repeatedly had pediculosis from May to September, 1997 were visited. 14.54% of the 237 examined persons were positive (40 individuals). 82.5% were females. The mother was the most affected relative (32.5%). 30 positive children were matched by age, sex and grade with 30 negative children. People living together with the cases had a higher frequency of pediculosis (12.4%) than those living with the controls (1.8%) (t = 3.49; p < 0.001). The examination and treatment, if necessary, of those persons living together with the school children with pediculosis was recommended.