We investigated the possibility that Chagas' patients develop an autoimmune response to human UsnRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) or Sm epitopes. Using purified human UsnRNPs, we detected anti-human UsnRNPs antibodies in sera from patients suffering from Chagas' disease. The antibodies were also detected using peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays containing the Sm-motif 1 domain. The latter technique showed that 61% (31/51) of the Chagas' patients' sera contained antibodies against Sm-motif 1. The detection of anti-UsnRNPs autoantibodies in Chagas' patients' sera strongly encourages further studies using animal models to determine how these autoantibodies appear.