Presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the continuum of surface and ground water used in drinking water production.

Abstract

Anthropogenic chemicals in surface water and groundwater cause concern especially when the water is used in drinking water production. Due to their continuous release or spill-over at waste water treatment plants, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are constantly present in aquatic environment and despite their low concentrations, APIs can still cause effects on the organisms. In the present study, Chemcatcher passive sampling was applied in surface water, surface water intake site, and groundwater observation wells to estimate whether the selected APIs are able to end up in drinking water supply through an artificial groundwater recharge system. The API concentrations measured in conventional wastewater, surface water, and groundwater grab samples were assessed with the results obtained with passive samplers. Out of the 25 APIs studied with passive sampling, four were observed in groundwater and 21 in surface water. This suggests that many anthropogenic APIs released to waste water proceed downstream and can be detectable in groundwater recharge. Chemcatcher passive samplers have previously been used in monitoring several harmful chemicals in surface and wastewaters, but the path of chemicals to groundwater has not been studied. This study provides novel information on the suitability of the Chemcatcher passive samplers for detecting APIs in groundwater wells.

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0216-7

Cite this paper

@article{Ahkola2017PresenceOA, title={Presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the continuum of surface and ground water used in drinking water production.}, author={Heidi S J Ahkola and Sirkku M Tuominen and Sanja Karlsson and Noora Perkola and Timo Huttula and Sami Saraper{\"a} and Aki Artimo and Taina Korpiharju and Lauri {\"Ayst{\"{o} and P{\"a}ivi Fj{\"a}der and Timo Assmuth and Kirsi Rosendahl and Taina H Nyst{\'e}n}, journal={Environmental science and pollution research international}, year={2017} }