Prescription for experimental determination of the dynamics of a quantum black box

@article{Chuang1997PrescriptionFE,
  title={Prescription for experimental determination of the dynamics of a quantum black box},
  author={Isaac L. Chuang and Michael A. Nielsen},
  journal={Journal of Modern Optics},
  year={1997},
  volume={44},
  pages={2455-2467}
}
Abstract We give an explicit way to experimentally determine the evolution operators which completely describe the dynamics of a quantum-mechanical black box: an arbitrary open quantum system. We show necessary and sufficient conditions for this to be possible and illustrate the general theory by considering specifically one-and two-quantum-bit systems. These procedures may be useful in the comparative evaluation of experimental quantum measurement, communication and computation systems. 

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