Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis

@article{Ilieva2015PrescriptionSE,
  title={Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis},
  author={Irena P. Ilieva and Cayce J. Hook and Martha J. Farah},
  journal={Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
  year={2015},
  volume={27},
  pages={1069-1089}
}
The use of prescription stimulants to enhance healthy cognition has significant social, ethical, and public health implications. The large number of enhancement users across various ages and occupations emphasizes the importance of examining these drugs' efficacy in a nonclinical sample. The present meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of the effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine on cognitive functions central to academic and occupational functioning, including inhibitory… 
Neurocognitive enhancement or impairment? A systematic meta-analysis of prescription stimulant effects on processing speed, decision-making, planning, and cognitive perseveration.
TLDR
A meta-analysis of the available literature examining the effects of prescription stimulants on specific measures of processing speed, planning, decision-making, and cognitive perseveration among healthy adult populations supports that prescription stimulant medication may indeed act as a neurocognitive enhancer for accuracy measures ofprocessing speed without impeding other areas of cognition.
In search of optimal psychoactivation: stimulants as cognitive performance enhancers
TLDR
The latest and most important research on the relationship between popular stimulants and cognitive enhancement is reviewed, including modafinil, an increasingly popular stimulant that differs from the rest in neurochemical profile and behavioural effects.
A META-ANALYSIS OF PRESCRIPTION STIMULANT EFFICACY: ARE STIMULANTS NEUROCOGNITIVE ENHANCERS?
Prescription stimulant use for neurocognitive enhancement is a significant problem among college students with and without ADHD. The primary reason students report misusing stimulant medication is to
Cognitive enhancement effects of stimulants: a randomized controlled trial testing methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine.
TLDR
The results can inform the use of stimulants for cognitive enhancement purposes as well as direct further research to investigate the effects of stimulant on specific cognitive domains that seem most promising, possibly by using tasks that are more demanding.
Cognitive enhancement: Effects of methylphenidate, modafinil and caffeine on latent memory and resting state functional connectivity in healthy adults
TLDR
Dopamine's role in attention and memory as well as its ability to modulate FC between large-scale neural networks (e.g. FPN and DMN) as a potential cognitive enhancement mechanism are discussed.
Effects of Intensity-Specific Acute Exercise on Paired-Associative Memory and Memory Interference
The improvement of memory performance is an ever-growing interest in research, with implications in many fields. Thus, identifying strategies to enhance memory and attenuate memory interference is of
Methylphenidate does not enhance visual working memory but benefits motivation in macaque monkeys
Placebo- and Nocebo-Effects in Cognitive Neuroenhancement: When Expectation Shapes Perception
TLDR
Manipulation of performance expectation affects the perceived change in performance and tiredness, but not the actual cognitive performance in healthy adults, which may explain why college students use such drugs despite their little impact on actual cognitive functioning.
The Experimental Effects of Acute Exercise Intensity on Episodic Memory and Working Memory Function
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential intensity-dependent effects of acute exercise on episodic memory and working memory capacity. A counterbalanced, randomized controlled,
Methylphenidate enhances implicit learning in healthy adults
TLDR
These results demonstrate that implicit measures of cognition are sensitive to pharmacological interventions in healthy volunteers, and implicit cognition measures may be a useful way of screening and tracking cognitive effects of novel agents in experimental medicine studies.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 127 REFERENCES
Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers
TLDR
This is the first study reporting enhanced declarative memory consolidation after methylphenidate in a dose-related fashion over a dose range that is presumed to reflect a wide range of dopamine reuptake inhibition.
Pattern Classification of Working Memory Networks Reveals Differential Effects of Methylphenidate, Atomoxetine, and Placebo in Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
Interactions between drug effects and motivational state are crucial in defining the effects of MPH and ATX in healthy volunteers performing a rewarded working memory (WM) task.
Pharmacological manipulations of arousal and memory for emotional material: effects of a single dose of methylphenidate or lorazepam
TLDR
The effects of Lorazepam add to a growing literature that benzodiazepines may exert their clinical, anxiolytic effects in part via altering emotionaL cognitive function by reducing the impact of emotionally arousing material on memory.
Effects of d-amphetamine in human models of information processing and inhibitory control.
Effects of Dextroamphetamine on Cognitive Performance and Cortical Activation
TLDR
The data shed light on the manner in which monoaminergic tone, working memory, and prefrontal function interact and demonstrate that even in normal subjects the behavioral and neurophysiologic effects of dextroamphetamine are not homogeneous.
What are the cognitive effects of stimulant medications? Emphasis on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • C. Advokat
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2010
Neuropsychological effects of amphetamine may correlate with personality characteristics.
TLDR
The results suggest that some cognitive abilities of persons who may have relatively high dopaminergic tone are disrupted by amphetamine, while those with relatively low dopamine tone may have their performance enhanced.
The dose-dependent effect of methylphenidate on performance, cognition and psychophysiology.
TLDR
Increased autonomic arousal (heart rate, skin conductance and blood pressure) and psychophysiological (ERP) data acquired during the working memory task found supported an increase in performance and underlying brain function with methylphenidate.
Effect of d-amphetamine on inhibition and motor planning as a function of baseline performance
TLDR
d-amphetamine reduced antisaccade error rates in healthy controls, replicating and extending findings with DA agonists in clinical populations, consistent with an inverted-U relationship between performance and DA activity.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...