Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age

  title={Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age},
  author={Adrian Glasser and Melanie C. W. Campbell},
  journal={Vision Research},

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Aging of the human crystalline lens and presbyopia.

The primary function of the crystalline lens is to increase the vergence of light that enters the pupil after passing through the cornea, and it serves the function of accommodation whereby the optical power of the lens is increased through the action of a ciliary muscle contraction.

Development and Aging of Human Visual Focusing Mechanisms

The lens-based geometric model of accommodation and presbyopia appears to fit the human visual system optimally and contribute to age-related accommodative loss.

The Aging of the Human Lens

Age-related lens changes include: a) the progressive increase in lens mass with age, b) changes in the point of insertion of the lens zonules, and c) a shortening of the radius of curvature of the

Polymer refilling of presbyopic human lenses in vitro restores the ability to undergo accommodative changes.

Refilling presbyopic lenses with a soft polymer enabled restoration of lens power changes with mechanical stretching, which could enable restoration of clear vision and accommodation in human presbyopia.

Massive increase in the stiffness of the human lens nucleus with age: the basis for presbyopia?

There is a marked increase in the stiffness of the human lens with age, most pronounced in the nucleus, and these measured changes in physical properties will markedly diminish the ability of the lens to accommodate, and thus may be a major contributing factor to presbyopia.

Accommodation and presbyopia.

This work summarized what is known about the anatomy and aging of the accommodative apparatus and how such changes might contribute to the loss of accommodative amplitude and proposed mechanism of accommodation different from that which is classically accepted.

Changes in monkey crystalline lens spherical aberration during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher.

Spherical aberration is negative in cynomolgus monkey lenses and becomes more negative with accommodation and is in good agreement with the predicted values using computational ray tracing in a lens model with a reconstructed gradient refractive index.

Age-Related Changes to the Three-Dimensional Full Shape of the Isolated Human Crystalline Lens

Three-dimensional quantitative OCT allowed us to study the age-dependency of geometric parameters of the full isolated human crystalline lens, and found that most of the lens geometric parameters showed a biphasic behavior, changing rapidly before age 20 years and with a slower linear growth thereafter.

Magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of age and accommodation on the human lens cross-sectional area.

This preliminary study documents, in vivo, that the lens grows with age, and this growth appears to be confined to the anterior portion of the lens.



Aging of the human crystalline lens and anterior segment

Change with age of the refractive index gradient of the human ocular lens.

The authors' results are consistent with and strongly in support of the hypothesis that subtle index changes in the aging lens compensate to a large extent for changes in surface curvatures.

Anterior zonular shifts with age.

Clinical Implications of Changes in Lens and Ocular Imaging Properties

Our measurements of in vitro changes in the focal properties of the human crystalline lens as a function of accommodative state and age demonstrate that presbyopia is a lens based phenomenon and that

The change in lens curvature with age.

  • N. Brown
  • Medicine
    Experimental eye research
  • 1974

The mechanism of accommodation and presbyopia in the primate

It is demonstrated that the lens is under increased zonular tension during accommodation and that presbyopia is not due to lens sclerosis or ciliary muscle atrophy, which disprove Helmholtz's longstanding, widely accepted theory of accommodation.

Mechanisms of emmetropization in the aging eye.

  • C. OoiT. Grosvenor
  • Medicine
    Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • 1995
It was concluded that a decrease in the gradient-index of the lens occurs with increasing age, acting as an emmetropizing mechanism by compensating for the steepening of both the front and back surfaces of the Lens.

Presbyopia - a maverick of human aging.