Preoperative intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine for pain control after outpatient arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

@article{Tetzlaff1999PreoperativeIM,
  title={Preoperative intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine for pain control after outpatient arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.},
  author={John E. Tetzlaff and John A Dilger and Jorge Abate and Richard D. Parker},
  journal={Regional anesthesia and pain medicine},
  year={1999},
  volume={24 3},
  pages={220-4}
}
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine whether intra-articular injection of bupivacaine, morphine, or a combination prior to surgery provided pain control after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS These data were collected as a two-stage prospective, randomized, blinded observer study. All patients received a standard general anesthetic, which included an intra-articular injection 20 minutes prior to incision. In phase I, three… CONTINUE READING

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