Risk Factors of Postcardiotomy Ventricular Dysfunction in Moderate-to-high Risk Patients Undergoing Open-heart Surgery
INTRODUCTION Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction frequently occurs after cardiac surgery, requiring inotropic treatment and/or mechanical circulatory support. In this study, we aimed to identify clinical, surgical and echocardiographic factors that are associated with LV dysfunction during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in high-risk patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic stenosis. METHODS Perioperative data were prospectively collected in 108 surgical candidates with an expected operative mortality >or=9%. All anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Reduced LV systolic function was defined by an ejection fraction <40%. Diastolic function of the LV was assessed using standard Doppler-derived parameters, tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and transmitral flow propagation velocity (Vp). RESULTS Doppler-derived pulmonary flow indices and TDI could not be obtained in 14 patients. In the remaining 94 patients, poor systolic LV was documented in 14% (n = 12) and diastolic dysfunction in 84% of patients (n = 89), all of whom had Vp <50 cm/s. During weaning from CPB, 38 patients (40%) required inotropic and/or mechanical circulatory support. By multivariate regression analysis, we identified three independent predictors of LV systolic dysfunction: age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.22), aortic clamping time (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.08) and Vp (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.81). Among echocardiographic measurements, Vp was found to be superior in terms of prognostic value and reliability. The best cut-off value for Vp to predict LV dysfunction was 40 cm/s (sensitivity of 72% and specificity 94%). Patients who experienced LV dysfunction presented higher in-hospital mortality (18.4% vs. 3.6% in patients without LV dysfunction, P = 0.044) and an increased incidence of serious cardiac events (81.6 vs. 28.6%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study provides the first evidence that, besides advanced age and prolonged myocardial ischemic time, LV diastolic dysfunction characterized by Vp <or= 40 cm/sec identifies patients who will require cardiovascular support following valve replacement for aortic stenosis.