Eleven prenylated C(6)-C(3) compounds, illioliganpyranone A (1), illioliganfunone A-D (2-5), and illioliganone D-I (6-11), together with five known prenylated C(6)-C(3) compounds (12-16), were isolated from roots of Illicium oligandrum. The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and CD experiments. Possible biosynthetic pathways to compounds 1-16 derived from a common precursor of 5-allylbenzene-1,2,4-triol were postulated. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780). Compound 15 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against HCT-8, BGC-823, A549, and A2780 cell lines with IC(50) values of 0.30-2.57 μM. Compound 16 showed moderate selective cytotoxicity against sensitive A2780 cells with IC(50) value of 1.38 μM.