Prenatal sonographic findings associated with a fetal horseshoe kidney.

@article{Sherer1990PrenatalSF,
  title={Prenatal sonographic findings associated with a fetal horseshoe kidney.},
  author={David M. Sherer and Jacquelyn B. H. Cullen and Howard O. Thompson and Leon A. Metlay and James R. Woods},
  journal={Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine},
  year={1990},
  volume={9}
}
Fusion of the upper or lower poles of the kidneys produces a horseshoe-shaped structure continuous across the midline, anterior to the great vessels. This anomaly is relatively common and is found in about 1 in 500 to 1 in 1,000 autopsies.1 Although the majority of such kidneys are fused at the lower pole, 10% are fused at the upper pole.1 This developmental abnormality occurs between approximately 7 and 9 weeks of gestation.2 We present a case of the prenatal sonographic findings associated… 
Horse-shoe Shaped Kidney in Fetus and its Associated Variations: A Case Report
TLDR
Horseshoe kidneys are found in 3% of the population and are probably the most common of all renal fusion anomalies, and may increase the risk for ureteric obstruction, venacaval obstruction, renal infections associated with vesicoureteral reflux, renal stones and increased risk of renal cancer.
Sonographic Findings of Fetuses with an Empty Renal Fossa and Normal Amniotic Fluid Volume
TLDR
The underlying cause of ERF in the majority of cases with normal amniotic fluid volume is renal ectopia, and prenatal ultrasonography seems to be highly reliable in diagnosing these anomalies.
Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe kidney by measurement of the renal pelvic angle
  • J. Cho, Y-H Lee, A. Toi, B. MacDonald
  • Medicine
    Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2005
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measurement of the angle between bilateral renal pelves on axial views in the prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of horseshoe kidney.
Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of horseshoe kidney

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