Prenatal maternal restraint stress exposure alters the reproductive hormone profile and testis development of the rat male offspring.

@article{Pallars2013PrenatalMR,
  title={Prenatal maternal restraint stress exposure alters the reproductive hormone profile and testis development of the rat male offspring.},
  author={Mar{\'i}a Eugenia Pallar{\'e}s and Ezequiela Adrover and Carlos Javier Baier and Nadia Soledad Bourguignon and Melisa Carolina Monteleone and Marcela A Brocco and Silvia In{\'e}s Gonz{\'a}lez-Calvar and Marta Cristina Antonelli},
  journal={Stress},
  year={2013},
  volume={16 4},
  pages={429-40}
}
Several studies have demonstrated that the presence of stressors during pregnancy induces adverse effects on the neuroendocrine system of the offspring later in life. In the present work, we investigated the effects of early programming on the male reproductive system, employing a prenatal stress (PS) paradigm. This study found that when pregnant dams were placed in a plastic restrainer three times a day during the last week of pregnancy, the offspring showed reduced anogenital distance and… CONTINUE READING
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