Prenatal diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava and its associated congenital anomalies

@article{Berg2006PrenatalDO,
  title={Prenatal diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava and its associated congenital anomalies},
  author={C Berg and M. Kn{\"u}ppel and Annegret Geipel and Thomas Kohl and Martin Krapp and Gisela Kn{\"o}pfle and Ute Germer and Manfred Hansmann and Ulrich Gembruch},
  journal={Ultrasound in Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  year={2006},
  volume={27}
}
To evaluate the associated conditions and the outcome of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) detected in fetal life. 
Clinical significance of persistent left superior vena cava diagnosed in fetal life
Objectives To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in fetuses with and without cardiac and extracardiac anomalies.
Fetal persistent left superior vena cava in cases with and without chromosomal anomalies
The objectives of this study are to determine and compare the prevalence of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses and to evaluate the potential of
Clinical characteristics of prenatally diagnosed persistent left superior vena cava in low‐risk pregnancies
TLDR
The incidence and clinical characteristics of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) among low‐risk pregnancies and electrocardiography parameters of infants with PLSVC are compared with those of normal controls.
Systematic review and meta‐analysis of persistent left superior vena cava on prenatal ultrasound: associated anomalies, diagnostic accuracy and postnatal outcome
  • S. Gustapane, M. Leombroni, F. D’Antonio
  • Medicine
    Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2016
To quantify the prevalence of chromosomal anomalies in fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), assess the strength of the association between PLSVC and coarctation of the aorta and
Prenatal diagnosis of abnormal cardinal systemic venous return without other heart defects: a case series
TLDR
To describe fetal spectrum and echocardiographic characteristics of anomalous systemic venous return without other structural heart defects (ASVR, cardinal veins) and evaluate associated extracardiac and genetic anomalies and review neonatal outcome.
Prenatal Sonographic Predictors of Neonatal Coarctation of the Aorta
TLDR
To identify practical prenatal sonographic markers for the postnatal diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta, the objective is to find out which markers are most useful for prenatal diagnosis and how to identify them.
The gap between the aorta and the superior vena cava: A sonographic sign of persistent left superior vena cava and associated abnormalities
To assess the distance between the right superior vena cava (SVC) and the aorta in fetuses with bilateral superior vena cava as a possible sonographic marker for this.
“ PERSISTANT LEFT SUPERIOR VENA CAVA ” EMBRYOLOGICAL BASIS AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
TLDR
The PLSVC can render access to right slide of heart challenging via the left subclavian approach, which is utilized using pacemaker and Swiz-Ganz catheters, and is confirmed by saline contrast.
Importance of Relationship between Ductus and Isthmus in Fetal Diagnosis of Coarctation of Aorta
TLDR
A variety of prenatal echo indices were evaluated to determine which would best predict neonatal coarctation of aorta, with the aim of identifying the most accurate indices for pregnancy and postnatal management.
Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava
TLDR
The importance of detailed fetal assessment for extra cardiac anomalies in addition to fetal echocardiography in fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC is highlighted.
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References

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A case of dilated coronary sinus with persistent left superior vena cava diagnosed at 33 weeks in a fetus with trisomy 18 is reported. The features of this cardiac anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography
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To assess the accuracy of fetal echocardiography in the prenatal diagnosis of cardiosplenic syndromes and the spectrum of associated anomalies, a large number of cases are diagnosed with at least some of the associated anomalies.
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TLDR
The radiographic appearance of persistent anomalous left vertical pulmonary vein is presented as an aid in differential diagnosis and satisfactory angiocardiographic results were obtained by catheterization of either the saphenous vein or right arm vein.
Persistence of left superior vena cava.
TLDR
Angiocardiography and cardiac catheterization have made possible its recognition during life of persistent left superior vena cava, a congenital anomaly of considerable interest but by itself exerts no apparent adverse affect on cardiac function.
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TLDR
Investigation of a persistent left superior vena cava with coronary sinus connection should suggest an associated malformation, especially atrioventricular canal, cor triatriatum, or mitral atresia, and the malformations associated with persistent LSVC support that view.
Caliber of the coronary sinus in fetuses with cardiac defects with and without left persistent superior vena cava and in growth‐restricted fetuses with heart‐sparing effect
To assess reference ranges for fetal coronary sinus (CS) diameter and to compare them with values from fetuses showing heart defects with and without left superior vena cava (LSVC) as well as with
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Fetal cardiac malformations, with an incidence of 8 : 1000among livebirths, are the most common congenital malforma-tions. Their incidence is 6.5 times greater than chromosomalanomalies and 4 times
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