The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prenatal characteristics of congenital nephrosis of the Finnish type (CNF). Patients presenting with elevated maternal serum and/or amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels, normal ultrasound examinations and normal fetal karyotypes were included. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using questionnaires sent to all board certified clinical geneticists. Perinatal outcome, including histologic verification of CNF, was obtained. Forty index cases met the above criteria. Ten cases ultimately did not have the diagnosis of CNF, with a median MSAFP level of 7.59 MoM (range 2.7-27.64 MoM) and a median AFAFP level of 10.99 MoM (range 1.47-128.6 MoM). In the affected cohort of index pregnancies, the initial median MSAFP level was 14.49 MoM (range 3.1-38.0 MoM); the median AFAFP level was 40.0 MoM (range 2.4-80.9). MSAFP and AFAFP levels may be lower than previously recognized in patients carrying fetuses with CNF. There is significant overlap between the affected and unaffected patients.