Prenatal alcohol and drug exposures are a significant concern in many domestic and international adoptions. This article addresses the following substance exposures for children: alcohol, opiates, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and methamphetamines. For each substance, we review the teratogenicity of the exposure and identify the spectrum of neurodevelopmental issues that can present in children exposed to this substance. Diagnosis of the spectrum of fetal alcohol outcomes is also discussed. When possible, we provide country-specific statistics on exposure risks for adopted children.