Prenatal Factors in Schizophrenia

@article{King2010PrenatalFI,
  title={Prenatal Factors in Schizophrenia},
  author={Suzanne King and Annie St-Hilaire and David Heidkamp},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={19},
  pages={209 - 213}
}
The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on how nongenetic factors occurring before, during, or soon after birth are related to schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric illness with a varied clinical presentation that has both environmental and genetic origins and that may result from insults to the nervous system that occur throughout development. In line with this, several endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) nongenetic factors of… 
The dual hit hypothesis of schizophrenia: Evidence from animal models
TLDR
In this review, animal studies regarding molecular and cellular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors may affect brain development, ultimately causing schizophrenia are summarized.
An exploration of the associations of pregnancy and perinatal features with cytokines and tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • R. Oades
  • Psychology, Biology
    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders
  • 2011
TLDR
In ADHD children more than controls, the balance of potentially toxic or protective kynurenine metabolites and of pro- over anti-inflammatory cytokines may reflect the perinatal experience associated with stress, but not with maternal illness.
Understanding the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Brain Development and Its Association With Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders
TLDR
A framework whereby early diet intervention can boost mental wellness in the affected subjects is discussed and a model that establishes a direct link of microbiome dysbiosis with the exacerbated inflammatory state, leading to functional brain deficits associated with NPD is proposed.
Schizophrenia-Like Features in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human HO-1 in the Astrocytic Compartment
TLDR
It is demonstrated that selective overexpression of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of novel GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice results in subcortical oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage/autophagy.
Hormesis, cellular stress response and neuroinflammation in schizophrenia: Early onset versus late onset state
TLDR
Altered expression of genes related to oxidative stress, oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, as well as reduced glutathione levels in central and peripheral tissues could act synergistically, and contribute to the course of the disease.
Dentate Gyrus Immaturity in Schizophrenia
TLDR
Evidence is adduced for arrested maturation of the dentate gyrus in the human schizophrenia-affected brain, as well as multiple rodent models of the disease.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Fetal Environment and Schizophrenia
TLDR
Exposure to lead is given as an example of a chemical agent for which some effects have been described throughout the life course on both general neurodevelopmental outcomes and now on a specific psychiatric diagnosis.
Understanding putative risk factors for schizophrenia: retrospective and prospective studies.
TLDR
The EnviroGen projects have been successful in explaining variance in several dimensions of illness, including premorbid adjustment and severity of dissociative symptoms, and Project Ice Storm has demonstrated the noxious effects of prenatal stress on cognitive and language development in children.
Prenatal infection and schizophrenia: a review of epidemiologic and translational studies.
TLDR
The promise of this work for facilitating the identification of susceptibility loci in genetic studies of schizophrenia is illustrated by examples of interaction between in utero exposure to infection and genetic variants.
Epigenetic mediation of environmental influences in major psychotic disorders.
TLDR
Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced and it is feasible to start investigating molecular modifications to DNA and histones and examine the mechanisms by which environmental factors can act upon the genome to bring about epigenetic changes involved in the etiology of these disorders.
Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events.
TLDR
It is suggested that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring, consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors and suggests that environment may influence neurodevelopment at the feto-placental-maternal interface.
Maternal prepregnant body mass and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring.
TLDR
Future studies of this cohort will examine factors that may help explain the relationship of high maternal prepregnant BMI with schizophrenia, including nutritional and metabolic factors, toxic exposures, and obstetrical complications.
Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: historical and meta-analytic review.
TLDR
Current methods of investigating the relationship between obstetric complications and schizophrenia are reaching the limit of their usefulness, and a combination of disciplines and approaches will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these small but important associations.
...
...