Prenatal Exposure to Atomic Radiation and Brain Damage *

  title={Prenatal Exposure to Atomic Radiation and Brain Damage *},
  author={Masanori Otake and Hiroshi Yoshimaru and William Jack Schull},
  journal={Congenital Anomalies},
Abstract Evaluation of data on the frequency of severe mental retardation among prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the performance of such survivors on intelligence tests and in school has shown the most striking effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation to occur among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 15th, and the 16th through the 25th week after fertilization. This is true under the earlier T65DR and the… 
Threshold for radiation-related severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors: a re-analysis.
The distribution of cases of severe mental retardation suggests a threshold in the low-dose region, and the 95% lower bound of the threshold in those survivors exposed 8-15 weeks after ovulation was zero for the individual data based on the simple linear model, and 0.05 Gy using the maximum likelihood estimates derived from an exponential-linear model.
Developmental abnormalities induced by ionizing and nonionizing radiation
Embryos are more susceptible to ionizing radiation than adults and there is no evidence of human congenital abnormalities caused by nonionizing radiation, but some studies have reported effects of radio frequency and extremely low‐frequency electromagnetic fields on cell proliferation and differentiation.
Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.
A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks.
Radiation‐Induced Apoptosis and Developmental Disturbance of the Brain *
The developing mammalian brain is highly susceptible to ionizing radiation. A significant increase in small head size and mental retardation has been noted in prenatally exposed survivors of the
A longitudinal study of growth and development of stature among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors.
The relationship between birth weights and repeated measurements of stature in adolescence is discussed based on the results obtained by a growth curve analysis.
Psychophysiologic aftereffects of prenatal irradiation.
Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs.
Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of
This Is Only a Test? Long-Run and Intergenerational Impacts of Prenatal Exposure to Radioactive Fallout
Abstract We examine the effect of radiation exposure in utero, resulting from nuclear weapon testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, on long-run outcomes of Norwegian children. Exposure to low-dose
Long-Run Impacts of Prenatal Exposure to Radioactive Fallout 1
Research increasingly shows that differences in endowments at birth need not be genetic but instead are influenced by environmental factors while the fetus is in the womb. In addition, these
Short- and long-term effects of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation in mouse cerebral cortex, with special reference to neuronal migration
It is demonstrated that the initial migration of BrdU-labeled cells from the matrix cell zone towards the cortical plate during embryonic periods was decelerated when exposed to X-rays of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Gy on embryonic day 14, and this suggests that some modification process might have occurred during the postnatal period.


C. Growth and Development Following Prenatal and Childhood Exposure to Atomic Radiation
Harmful effects of radiation later in pregnancy and in early childhood have not been as clearly demonstrated, however reduction in growth is also found among Hiroshima children.
Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors.
  • G. Kerr
  • Medicine, Physics
    Health physics
  • 1979
Investigation of Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided.
The Epicenter of the Nagasaki Weapon: A Reanalysis of Available Data with Recommended Values
A significant source of uncertainty in estimates of radiation dose for atomic-bomb survivors of Nagasaki and in correlations of radiation dose with medical effects observed in these survivors is due
Quantitative growth and development of human brain
The growth spurt period is much more postnatal than has formerly been supposed; the cerebellum has special growth characteristics; and there is a separate period from 10 to 18 weeks' gestation when adult neuronal cell number may largely be achieved.
Acute non-stochastic effect of very low dose whole-body exposure, a thymidine equivalent serum factor.
The acute low-dose effect of whole-body irradiation of mice causes the dose-dependent appearance of a humoral factor in blood serum which inhibits incorporation of 125-IUdR into tissue culture cells and has implications for the measurement of low- dose exposure by biological dosimeters and on basic research on membrane function.
Acute and temporary inhibition of thymidine kinase in mouse bone marrow cells after low-dose exposure.
The reversibility of the effect in vivo and in vitro suggests a particular enzyme control mechanism that may be non-specifically triggered by intracellular charges, such as peroxides, and may enhance repair.
Quantitative changes in the synaptic vesicle proteins synapsin I and p38 and the astrocyte-specific protein glial fibrillary acidic protein are associated with chemical-induced injury to the rat central nervous system
  • T. Brock, J. O'Callaghan
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1987
Measurements of neuron-specific and glia-specific proteins were used to characterize chemical-induced injury to the rat CNS and indicate that neurotypic and gliotypic proteins may be used to characterized the temporal and regional patterns of neuronal and glial responses to injury.
Developmental-stage-dependent radiosensitivity of neural cells in the ventricular zone of telencephalon in mouse and rat fetuses.
The highest radiosensitivity in terms of acute cell death was shown in the same developmental stage of brain development, i.e., the beginning phase of cerebral cortical histogenesis, in both mice and rats.