Prelude or requiem for the ‘Mozart effect’?

@article{Chabris1999PreludeOR,
  title={Prelude or requiem for the ‘Mozart effect’?},
  author={Christopher F. Chabris},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={400},
  pages={826-827}
}
  • C. Chabris
  • Published 26 August 1999
  • Psychology
  • Nature
Rauscher et al. reported that listening to ten minutes of Mozart's music increased the abstract reasoning ability of college students, as measured by IQ scores, by 8 or 9 points compared with listening to relaxation instructions or silence, respectively. This startling finding became known as the ‘Mozart effect’, and has since been explored by several research groups. Here I use a meta-analysis to demonstrate that any cognitive enhancement is small and does not reflect any change in IQ or… 

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