[Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To study source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 (particle matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing,Urumqi and Qingdao, China. METHODS The atmospheric particle samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from Beijing between May 17th and June 18th, 2005, from Urumqi between April 20th and June 1st, 2006 and from Qingdao between April 4th and May 15th, 2005, were detected to trace the source apportionment by factor analysis and enrichment factor methods. RESULTS In Beijing, the source apportionment results derived from factor analysis model for PM10 were construction dust and soil sand dust (contributing rate of variance at 45.35%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (contributing rate at 31.83%), and biomass burning dust (13.57%). The main pollution element was Pb, while the content (median (minimum value-maximum value)was 0.216 (0.040-0.795) µg/m(3)) . As for PM2.5, the sources were construction dust and soil sand dust (38.86%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (25.73%), biomass burning dust (13.10%) and burning oil dust (11.92%). The main pollution element was Zn (0.365(0.126-0.808) µg/m(3)).In Urumqi, source apportionment results for PM10 were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust(49.75%), industry dust, vehicle emissions and secondary particles dust (30.65%). The main characteristic pollution element was Cd (0.463(0.033-1.351) ng/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust (43.26%), secondary particles dust (22.29%), industry dust and vehicle emissions (20.50%). The main characteristic pollution element was As (14.599 (1.696-36.741) µg/m(3)).In Qingdao, source apportionment results for PM10 were construction dust (30.91%), vehicle emissions and industry dust (29.65%) and secondary particles dust (28.99%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb (64.071 (5.846-346.831) µg/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were secondary particles dust, industry dust and vehicle emissions (49.82%) and construction dust (33.71%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb(57.340 (5.004-241.559) µg/m(3)).Enrichment factors of Zn, Pb, As and Cd in PM2.5 were higher than those in PM10 both in Beijing and Urumqi. CONCLUSION The major sources of the atmospheric particles PM10 and PM2.5 in Beijing were cement dust from construction sites and sand dust from soil; while the major sources of those in Urumqi were pollution by smoke and sand dust from burning coal. The major sources of the atmospheric particles PM10 in Qingdao were cement dust from construction sites; however, the major sources of PM2.5 there were secondary particles dust, industry dust and vehicle emissions. According to our study, the heavy metal elements were likely to gather in PM2.5.

Cite this paper

@article{Gao2013PreliminarySO, title={[Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].}, author={Shen K Gao and Xiaochuan Pan and Li-na Madaniyazi and Juan Xie and Ya-hui He}, journal={Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]}, year={2013}, volume={47 9}, pages={837-42} }