Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 1--Discogenic pain without disc herniation or radiculitis.

@article{Manchikanti2008PreliminaryRO,
  title={Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 1--Discogenic pain without disc herniation or radiculitis.},
  author={Laxmaiah Manchikanti and Kimberly A. Cash and Carla D. McManus and Vidyasagar Pampati and Howard Smith},
  journal={Pain physician},
  year={2008},
  volume={11 6},
  pages={785-800}
}
BACKGROUND Intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, fascia, muscles, and nerve root dura have been described as tissues capable of transmitting pain in the low back. The pathophysiology of spinal radicular pain is the subject of ongoing research and controversy with discogenic pain assuming a major role as a cause of non-specific low back pain. Even though epidural injections are frequently administered in managing axial low back pain, the evidence is lacking. STUDY DESIGN A randomized… CONTINUE READING

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Physician payment

L Manchikanti, J Giordano
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