OBJECTIVES To present the preliminary results of the PRIUM study, a French pilot study of prenatal repair for myelomeningoceles (MMC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The fetal surgery for MMC is offered in cases of patients that did not opt for termination of pregnancy. RESULTS Thirty-six patients were referred in an 18-month period. Eight patients were not eligible for prenatal repair. Another type of dysraphism was made in 6 cases (one spina-lipoma, 5 cases of limited dorsal myeloschisis). Twenty-two patients were eligible to fetal surgery. A prenatal repair was performed in three cases (14%). Four patients opted for a conventional postnatal treatment. Fifteen patients opted for termination of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION The establishment of a prenatal repair of MMC protocol in France was justified. The experience of the first 18months of this study however suggests that only a limited number of couples will choose this procedure after specialized counseling in a reference center.