Prejudice against Women in Male-congenial Environments: Perceptions of Gender Role Congruity in Leadership

  title={Prejudice against Women in Male-congenial Environments: Perceptions of Gender Role Congruity in Leadership},
  author={Roc{\'i}o Garc{\'i}a-Retamero and Esther Lopez-Zafra},
  journal={Sex Roles},
Some authors assert that there is a feminine advantage in leadership, even though female leaders are often targets of prejudice. Our experiment tested how people’s expectations affect this prejudice in different work environments. Participants evaluated a male or a female candidate for a leadership position in an industry that was congruent or incongruent with the candidate’s gender role. Participants showed prejudice against the female candidate, especially when she worked in an industry… Expand
Female Leadership and Role Congruity within the Clergy: Communal Leaders Experience No Gender Differences Yet Agentic Women Continue to Suffer Backlash
Role congruity theory predicts that female leaders will experience prejudice because the role of leader aligns more closely with the stereotypic male gender role than it does with the stereotypicExpand
Causal Attributions About Feminine and Leadership Roles
In a cross-cultural study, the authors tested whether the leadership role is more congruent with the masculine than the feminine gender role. Participants in Germany and Spain evaluated a male or aExpand
Gender Differences in Ethnocultural Empathy and Attitudes Toward Men and Women in Authority
The relationship between attitudes toward members of ethnic or cultural minority groups and men and women in authority or leadership positions was examined. The Ethnocultural Empathy Scale and GenderExpand
“I Want to be a Leader, But Men Are Better Than Women in Leadership Positions”
This research paper investigates female perceptions of female leadership in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where, particularly recently, state feminism has supported women’s occupation ofExpand
Gendering Leadership in Vietnamese Media: A Role Congruity Study on News Content and Journalists’ Perception of Female and Male Leaders
This study combines two research methods to explore how female leaders are portrayed in the news in Vietnam, and Vietnamese journalists’ perception of female and male leaders. Content analysisExpand
A contextual study of female-leader role stereotypes in the hotel sector
Abstract Guided by the role congruity theory (RCT), this paper examines the mismatch in female-leader role stereotypes and how this mismatch may lead to prejudicial evaluations against femaleExpand
Prejudice toward female leaders: Insights from the hotel sector in Jordan
Abstract This paper examines gender practices at hotels in Jordan by scrutinizing the extent to which prejudice toward females influences their ability to emerge as effective leaders. It alsoExpand
Untangling the relationship between gender and leadership
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the perceptions of leader effectiveness and preference on gender and leadership style. Design/methodology/approachExpand
Gender Stereotypes, Political Leadership, and Voting Behavior in Tunisia
Although female political representation in the Arab world has nearly doubled in the last decade, little is known about how voters in the region view female politicians and their political platforms,Expand
Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey
The present study of 60,470 women and men examined evaluations of participants’ current managers as well as their preferences for male and female managers, in general. A cross-sex bias emerged in theExpand


Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.
Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that consequences of perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles are more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Expand
The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence
Abstract Journalists and authors of trade books increasingly assert a female advantage in leadership, whereby women are more likely than men to lead in a style that is effective under contemporaryExpand
Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis.
Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective, however, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms. Expand
Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis
Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to theExpand
Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Female Authority
Attitudes toward female authority and their relationship to gender beliefs were examined using implicit and explicit measures of each. Implicit attitudes covaried with implicit gender authorityExpand
Gender-Stereotypic Images of Occupations Correspond to the Sex Segregation of Employment
This study examines the role of gender stereotypes in justifying the social system by maintaining the division of labor between the sexes. The distribution of the sexes in 80 occupations wasExpand
Gender and Managerial Stereotypes: Have the Times Changed?
There has been a considerable increase in the proportion of women managers in recent years, from 21% in 1976 to 46% in 1999, and a call for “feminine leadership” to capitalize on this increase. TheExpand
Gender and Social Influence
This review article reveals that men are generally more influential than women, although the gender difference depends on several moderators. Relative to men, women are particularly less influentialExpand
Stereotypes as Dynamic Constructs: Women and Men of the Past, Present, and Future
Dynamic stereotypes characterize social groups that are thought to have changed from the attributes they manifested in the past and even to continue to change in the future. According to social roleExpand
Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women's ascent up the organizational ladder.
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectationsExpand