Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents

  title={Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents},
  author={Paul S. Martin and David W Steadman},
Geological extinction of a continental megafauna of Holarctic mammoths, American ground sloths, and Australian diprotodonts, to name a few mammalian examples, rivals pulsing ice sheets and fluctuating sea levels in being a hallmark of the Quaternary. To these more familiar examples of late Quaternary extinction (LQE), younger fossils recently recovered from oceanic islands, including bird and land snail taxa from the Pacific and various endemic terrestrial vertebrates from the Caribbean, add… 
The late Quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands
Holocene Large Mammal Extinctions in Palawan Island, Philippines
Zooarchaeological assemblages from northern Palawan, Philippines document the changing composition of the island’s mammal fauna during the Late Quaternary. Ille Cave site has a well-dated
Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia
The geologically instantaneous prehistoric collapse of Lifuka's vertebrate community contrasts with the much longer periods of faunal depletion on some other islands, thus showing that the elapse time between human arrival and major extinction events was highly variable on oceanic islands as well as on continents.
Of mice, mastodons and men: human-mediated extinctions on four continents
It is found that body size distributions of all mammals in North America, South America, Africa and Australia before and after the late Pleistocene show a similar large-size selectivity of extinctions across continents, despite differences in timing.
Pleistocene Overkill and North American Mammalian Extinctions
Clovis groups in Late Pleistocene North America occasionally hunted several now extinct large mammals. But whether their hunting drove 37 genera of animals to extinction has been disputed, largely
Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate
Results from recent studies suggest that humans precipitated extinction in many parts of the globe through combined direct (hunting) and perhaps indirect (competition, habitat alteration) impacts, but that the timing and geography of extinction might have been different and the worldwide magnitude less, had not climatic change coincided with human impacts in many places.


Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic
The dwarfing of the Wrangel mammoths is interpreted as a result of the insularity effect, combined with a response to the general trend towards unfavourable environment in the Holocene.
Terrestrial Faunas and Habitats of Aldabra During the Late Pleistocene
Far from being fixed and unchanging, the islands and land areas of the western Indian Ocean are in a dynamic state; the most important variable, apart from tectonic activity, has been the rise and
Mammoth extinction: two continents and Wrangel Island
A harvest of 300 radiocarbon dates on extinct elephants (Proboscidea) from the northern parts of the New and Old Worlds has revealed a striking difference. While catastrophic in North America,
Natural change and human impact in Madagascar
A miniature continent long isolated from the African mainland, the island of Madagascar evolved a biota that remains one of the most varied of any environment in the world. Following the arrival of
Prehistoric Extinctions of Pacific Island Birds: Biodiversity Meets Zooarchaeology
On tropical Pacific islands, a human-caused "biodiversity crisis" began thousands of years ago and has nearly run its course and the current global extinction crisis therefore has historic precedent.
A late Pleistocene avifauna from the island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands
  • H. James
  • Environmental Science, Geology
  • 1987
Fossils from an eroding sea cliff on the Mokapu Peninsula of the island of Oahu constitute the oldest vertebrate fauna known from the Hawaiian Islands. These bones apparently accumulated in a lake