The objectives were to examine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on expression of key endometrial genes and proteins regulating prostaglandin synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Two diets were fed, at about 17 d in milk (DIM), in which oil of whole cottonseed (control diet) was compared with calcium salts of fish oil-enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol and cows were inseminated artificially or not inseminated on d 0 (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST, and were slaughtered on d 17 to recover uterine secretions and endometrial tissue. Number of cows in the control diet: 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows and in the FO diet: 4 bST-treated FO-cyclic (bST-FO-C) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. The FO diet increased progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA, and treatment with bST increased PR mRNA concentration in endometrium of no bST-C, but not in no bST-FO-C or no bST-P cows. Concentrations of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) mRNA and protein, and oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA were decreased in no bST-P cows compared with no bST-C cows. Treatment with bST tended to increase OTR and ERalpha mRNA concentrations in cyclic cows fed control or FO diets. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated effects of bST, FO, and pregnancy on distributions of ERalpha and PR proteins in endometrium. Pregnancy and FO feeding decreased ERalpha abundance in luminal epithelium. Prostaglandin H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) protein was elevated in pregnant cows and localized to the luminal epithelium. Both FO and bST treatments reduced staining intensity of PGHS-2 protein. Concentrations of prostaglandin E synthase mRNA were elevated in either cyclic or pregnant cows in response to bST, whereas bST decreased prostaglandin F synthase mRNA in pregnant cows. Uterine lumen fluids had more PGF2alpha and prostaglandin E2 in pregnant than cyclic cows. Uterine lumen fluids of bST-P cows contained more prostaglandin E2 than those from no bST-P cows. In summary, both pregnancy and bST altered endometrial gene expression, and cyclic cows responded differently to bST than pregnant cows. Feeding FO modulated PR, ERalpha, and PGHS-2 expression and distribution among endometrial cell types in a manner that may favor establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.