Prefrontal cortex and decision making in a mixed-strategy game

  title={Prefrontal cortex and decision making in a mixed-strategy game},
  author={Dominic J. Barraclough and Michelle L. Conroy and Daeyeol Lee},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
In a multi-agent environment, where the outcomes of one's actions change dynamically because they are related to the behavior of other beings, it becomes difficult to make an optimal decision about how to act. Although game theory provides normative solutions for decision making in groups, how such decision-making strategies are altered by experience is poorly understood. These adaptive processes might resemble reinforcement learning algorithms, which provide a general framework for finding… 
Dynamic signals related to choices and outcomes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
The results suggest that the DLPFC might be an important node in the cortical network of decision making, and activity of some neurons was modulated by the computer's choices in the previous trials and may reflect the process of updating the value functions.
Temporal Filtering of Reward Signals in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex during a Mixed-Strategy Game
Results suggest that neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex might be involved in the subjective evaluation of choice outcomes based on the animal's reward history.
Cortical mechanisms for reinforcement learning in competitive games
  • H. Seo, Daeyeol Lee
  • Biology, Psychology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2008
Functional specialization between different areas of the primate frontal cortex involved in outcome monitoring and action selection is demonstrated using simple competitive games.
Neural correlates of strategic reasoning during competitive games
The responses of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex cells in the monkey brains predicted their choices and switches in strategies, and these responses might provide control signals for overriding simple heuristic learning algorithms based on the inferred strategies of the opponent.
Mechanisms of Reinforcement Learning and Decision Making in the Primate Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
The relative merits of various decision‐making tasks used in neurophysiological studies of decision making in nonhuman primates are discussed and how reinforcement learning theory can shed new light on the function of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is focused on.
It is predicted that in combination with sophisticated manipulation of socio-cognitive factors, game theoretic approaches will continue to provide useful tools to understand multifaceted aspects of complex social decision making, including their neural substrates.
Reinforcement Learning Signals Predict Future Decisions
It is found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial, and FRNs to decision outcomes were disproportionately larger over the motor cortex contralateral to the response hand that was used to make the decision.
Neural computations underlying strategic social decision-making in groups
Using model-based fMRI and Public-good-games, it is found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex encodes immediate expected rewards as individual utility while the lateral frontopolar cortex encoded group utility when it is required to change one’s strategy.


Neural correlates of decision variables in parietal cortex
The data indicate that a decision-theoretic model may provide a powerful new framework for studying the neural processes that intervene between sensation and action.
Reward expectancy in primate prefrental neurons
It is reported that the delay activity in prefrontal neurons is dependent also on the particular reward received for the behavioural response, and to the way the reward is given.
Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria
The authors examine learning in all experiments they could locate involving one hundred periods or more of games with a unique equilibrium in mixed strategies, and in a new experiment. They study
Impact of expected reward on neuronal activity in prefrontal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields and premotor cortex.
The very strong reward-related activity of premotor neurons was presumably attributable to the monkey's motivation-dependent level of motor preparation or motor output, and points to the need to determine whether reward- related activity in other nonlimbic brain areas, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum, genuinely represents the value of the expected reward or, alternatively, is related to motivational modulation of motor signals.
Markov Games as a Framework for Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning
Expectation of reward modulates cognitive signals in the basal ganglia
The results indicate that the caudate contributes to the determination of oculomotor outputs by connecting motivational values (for example, expectation of reward) to visual information.
Influence of reward expectation on visuospatial processing in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.
Previous findings suggesting that the LPFC exerts dual influences based on predicted reward outcome: improvement of memory-guided saccades and suppression of inappropriate behavior (when reward is not expected) are extended.