Preening as a Vehicle for Key Bacteria in Hoopoes

@article{MartnezGarca2015PreeningAA,
  title={Preening as a Vehicle for Key Bacteria in Hoopoes},
  author={{\'A}ngela Mart{\'i}nez-Garc{\'i}a and Juan Jos{\'e} Soler and Sonia M. Rodr{\'i}guez-Ruano and Manuel Mart{\'i}nez-Bueno and Antonio Manuel Mart{\'i}n-Platero and Natalia Ju{\'a}rez-Garc{\'i}a and Manuel Mart{\'i}n-Vivaldi},
  journal={Microbial Ecology},
  year={2015},
  volume={70},
  pages={1024-1033}
}
Oily secretions produced in the uropygial gland of incubating female hoopoes contain antimicrobial-producing bacteria that prevent feathers from degradation and eggs from pathogenic infection. Using the beak, females collect the uropygial gland secretion and smear it directly on the eggshells and brood patch. Thus, some bacterial strains detected in the secretion should also be present on the eggshell, beak, and brood patch. To characterize these bacterial communities, we used Automatic… 
Seasonal and Sexual Differences in the Microbiota of the Hoopoe Uropygial Secretion
TLDR
It is hypothesize that bacterial proliferation may be host-regulated in phases of high infection risk (i.e., nesting) and highlighted the importance of specific antimicrobial-producing bacteria present only in dark secretions that may be key in this defensive symbiosis.
The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird
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The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds.
Nest Bacterial Environment Affects Microbiome of Hoopoe Eggshells, but Not That of the Uropygial Secretion
TLDR
First experimental evidence indicating that nest material influences the bacterial community of the eggshells and, therefore, probability of embryo infection is shown, suggesting a role of nest environments of hoopoes as reservoirs of symbiotic bacteria.
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The results indicate that bacterial communities of eggshells and body parts of female hoopoes are at least partially conditioned by the symbiotic community in the uropygial gland, which is important for understanding this host–microbial mutualism functioning and evolution.
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Evidence is found of a link between eggshell bacterial loads and increased embryo mortality, which provides indirect support for a bacterial-mediated negative effect of ectoparasitism on host offspring.
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TLDR
It is suggested that uropygial secretion of hoopoes, and symbiotic bacteria living in this secretion, may repel blood-feeding flies from their nests.
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TLDR
This review provides insight into the physiological and microbiological characteristics of eggshell cuticle in relation to its protective function (innate immunity) in egg-laying birds and reptiles.
Preen oil and bird fitness: a critical review of the evidence
  • G. Moreno-Rueda
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2017
TLDR
The uropygial gland appears to have several non‐mutually exclusive functions in birds, and thus is likely to be subject to several selective pressures, and future studies should consider how the inevitable trade‐offs among different functions drive the evolution of uropyGial gland secretions.
Reproductive success related to uropygial gland volume varies with abundance of conspecifics in barn swallows Hirundo rustica
TLDR
It is found that barn swallows with larger uropygial glands had higher breeding success when living in environments with higher abundance of conspecifics, and the outcomes suggest that benefits of uropgial secretion are host density dependent, thus consistent with this being a heritable trait that has evolved as a consequence of divergent selection imposed by pathogens.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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