Based on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in B6C3F1 mice conducted by the National Toxicology Program, 2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) and tetranitromethane (TNM) have been identified as carcinogens. Following 2 yr of exposure to 312, 625, or 1,250 ppm BMP in feed, or exposure to 0.5 or 2 ppm TNM by inhalation, increased incidences of lung neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations compared to unexposed mice. The present study characterizes genetic alterations in the K-ras protooncogene in BMP- and TNM-induced lung neoplasms, respectively, and compares the findings to spontaneous lung neoplasms from corresponding control mice. The frequencies of the K-ras mutations were 57% (29/51) in BMP-induced lung neoplasms compared to 15% (3/20) in lung neoplasms from dosed feed control mice, and 54% (14/26) in TNM-induced lung neoplasms compared to 60% (3/5) in lung neoplasms from inhalation control mice. G --> A transitions at the second base of the K-ras codon 12 (GGT --> GAT) were the most frequent pattern of K-ras mutations identified in BMP-induced (20/29) and TNM-induced lung neoplasms (13/14), which differed from the mutational patterns identified in the lung neoplasms from unexposed control mice. These results indicate that mutations in the K-ras gene are involved in B6C3F1 lung carcinogenesis following BMP- and TNM-exposure, and the high frequency and specificity of the ras mutation profile in lung neoplasms (G --> A transition) may be due to in vivo genotoxicity by the parent compounds or their metabolites.