Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Results From a Retrospective Series and Implications for the Design of Prospective Clinical Trials
The dramatic increase of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae has been associated with fatal outcomes. First, bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae have been associated with treatment failure, more recently BSIs caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) have been reported to be fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Severity of underlying disease, intensive care unit stay at infection onset, infection with ESBL or CR-KP strain and delay in administration of appropriate therapy are among the most common risk factors for mortality in patients with K. pneumoniae BSI, while infection source control and early appropriate antimicrobial treatment have been associated with survival. Thus, risk assessment for ESBL and/or CR-KP is mandatory in patients with suspicion of K. pneumoniae BSI. Here, we examine current evidence regarding risk factors for mortality in patients with K. pneumoniae BSI and address the issue of a risk prediction model for CR-KP BSI.