In this article, we intentionally present exclusively the results of our recent studies of arterial and venous hemodynamics as predictors of human orthostatic tolerance during space flight and after the return to Earth. The possibility of in-flight orthostatic tolerance prediction by arterial hemodynamic responses to the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and venous hemodynamic changes in response to occlusion of the lower extremities is demonstrated. For the first time, three levels of cerebral blood flow deficits during the determination of orthostatic tolerance in the course of the LBNP test performed in microgravity. We offer quantitative arguments for the dependence of the cerebral blood flow deficit on the degree of tolerance of the LBNP test. Patterns of arterial hemodynamics during LBNP were successfully used to diagnose the actual orthostatic tolerance and to follow its trend during flight, which testifies to the possibility of predicting orthostatic tolerance changes in an individual cosmonaut during space flight. Occlusion plethysmography of the legs revealed three levels of response of the most informative venous parameters (capacity, distensibility, and rate of filling) of the lower extremities correlated to the severity of decrease in orthostatic tolerance.