Spatial predictions at the community level: from current approaches to future frameworks.
Methods We compared two community modelling approaches: the classical method of stacking binary prediction obtained from individual species distribution models (binary stacked species distribution models, bS-SDMs), and various implementations of a recent framework (spatially explicit species assemblage modelling, SESAM) based on four steps that integrate the different drivers of the assembly process in a unique modelling procedure. We used: (1) five methods to create bS-SDM predictions; (2) two approaches for predicting species richness, by summing individual SDM probabilities or by modelling the number of species (i.e. richness) directly; and (3) five different biotic rules based either on ranking probabilities from SDMs or on community co-occurrence patterns. Combining these various options resulted in 47 implementations for each taxon.