Predicting refractive astigmatism: a suggested simplification of Javal's rule.

@article{Grosvenor1988PredictingRA,
  title={Predicting refractive astigmatism: a suggested simplification of Javal's rule.},
  author={Theodore Grosvenor and Sandra Quintero and D M Perrigin},
  journal={American journal of optometry and physiological optics},
  year={1988},
  volume={65 4},
  pages={292-7}
}
In the period of almost 100 years since Javal proposed an empirically determined rule for the prediction of refractive astigmatism on the basis of corneal astigmatism, many authors have made suggestions for the modification of "Javal's Rule." These modifications, rather than being based on clinical data, have been based on concepts of mechanisms that can contribute to refractive astigmatism, but in most cases the modifications do nothing more than complicate the process of predicting refractive… CONTINUE READING