Predicting continuum breakdown in hypersonic viscous flows

  title={Predicting continuum breakdown in hypersonic viscous flows},
  author={W. H. Wanga and Iain D. Boydb},
This paper presents a study of the breakdown of the Navier–Stokes equations in hypersonic viscous flows over a sharp cone tip and a hollow cylinder/flare geometry. Investigations are performed through detailed comparisons of the numerical results obtained with continuum and particle techniques. The objective of the study is to predict conditions under which the continuum approach may be expected to fail. A modified breakdown parameter is proposed that can predict the failure of the continuum… CONTINUE READING
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