Predicting and avoiding subcellular compartmentalization artifacts arising from acetoxymethyl ester calcium imaging probes. The case of fluo-3 AM and a general account of the phenomenon including a problem avoidance chart.
Stimulated by difficulties experienced when using fluo-3 AM, we developed a general mechanistic model to aid understanding and practical application of calcium probes applied as acetoxymethyl (AM) esters. Several practical issues previously overlooked or under-emphasized are considered by this model. First, some AM ester probes are "super" lipophilic, e.g… (More)