Predator inspection behaviour in minnow shoals: differences between populations and individuals

  title={Predator inspection behaviour in minnow shoals: differences between populations and individuals},
  author={Anne E. Magurran},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  • A. Magurran
  • Published 1 September 1986
  • Environmental Science
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
SummaryWhen minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) detect a stalking pike (Esox lucius) one of their first responses is to perform ‘inspection behaviour’ during which individuals or small groups approach the predator. This paper compares the inspection behaviour of two contrasting groups of minnows: Dorset minnows which have been heavily predated by pike for many thousands of years and Gwynedd minnows which have spent an equivalent period of time in a pike free environment. Minnows sympatric with pike… 
Individual Behavioural Strategies Associated with Predator Inspection in Minnow Shoals
When confronted with a live pike, Esox lucius, European minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, showing individual differences in rate of predator inspection, fish with high inspection rates were bolder, skittered more frequently and fed more persistently than fish with low inspection rates.
Predator inspection behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): body size, local predation pressure and cooperation
It is confirmed that levels of predator inspection are both population- and situation-dependent, suggesting a trade-off in the potential costs and benefits of this behaviour.
Hunger-dependent predator inspection and foraging behaviours in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under predation risk
The results indicate that the hungrier fish in a shoal are more willing to take greater risks to inspect a potential threat at a distance, compared with their well-fed shoal mates, and suggest that they may gain a foraging benefit in doing so.
Chemically-Mediated Predator Inspection Behavior by Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)
Fathead minnow acquire information about potential predation risk in the absence of visual cues and engage in seemingly high risk investigating activity, indicating that FHM respond to northern pike chemical cues via directional movement into the open water habitats.
Intraspecific patterns of resource use by fathead minnows in a small boreal lake
An isolated, single-species assemblage of fathead minnows was studied to identify patterns of feeding and diel activity among three life-history groups, and patterns of habitat use and activity were consistent with behavioral flexibility.
Predator inspection, shoaling and foraging under predation hazard in the Trinidadian guppy,Poecilia reticulata
Guppies exhibited a lower feeding rate in the presence of the predator, suggesting a trade-off between foraging gains and safety against predation, and it is suggested that predator inspection behavior may account for some of this reduction in foraging.
Population Differences in Responses of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) to Visual and Chemical Stimuli from Predators
Fathead minnows apparently utilize at least a two-tiered predator recognition system that incorporates both visual and chemical cues in response to chemical stimuli from heterospecific fishes.
Chemosensory predator recognition in the lizardPodarcis hispanica: Effects of predation pressure relaxation
Two subspecies of Podarcis hispanica lizards in cages that had been chemically marked by a saurophagous snake, the viperVipera latastei, exhibited more stress-indicating behaviors and became less mobile, and tongue-flicked more while moving in a snake-inhabited terrarium than when in a clean, unfamiliar terrarium.
Differences in the pattern of antipredator behaviour between hatchery-reared and wild European sea bass juveniles
Shoals of hatchery-reared and wild sea bass juveniles Dicentrarchus labrax were tested for differences in their antipredator responses towards a potential live predator, the eel Anguilla anguilla, and one component of the antipredators response, the predator inspection behaviour, was fully developed in both wild and hatchery fish.
Age, Experience and the Development of Adaptive Variation in Anti‐predator Responses in Three‐spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
Adaptive behavioural differences between these two populations arise as sticklebacks from the heavily predated site develop responses that fail to appear in those from the unpredated site and that are independent of direct experience of predatory attack.


Dicing with death: predator inspection behaviour in minnow shoals
Individual minnows which have carried out an inspection visit to the predator model exhibit changes in behaviour on return which are contingent upon the state of the model, demonstrating that information is gained.
Avoidance responses of fathead minnow to strikes by four teleost predators
  • P. Webb
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
The results suggest that configuration differences between the predators are important contributors to the stimulus initiating avoidance responses and it is suggested that the rounded body cross-section of esocids is associated with higher response thresholds than elliptical and lenticular cross-sections of trout, bass and rock bass.
  • B. Seghers
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1974
This report presents a new source of evidence favoring an antipredator role for schooling in guppies from natural populations of a small tropical freshwater fish, the guppy, in the Northern Range Mountains of Trinidad, West Indies.
Functions of Shoaling Behaviour in Teleosts
Predators and food are the keys to understanding fish shoals; synchronised co-operation defeats predators, and optimal food gathering in shoals reflects a shifting balance between joining, competing
Some ecological consequences of fish school volumes
It is shown that roach schools in one river are constantly within attack range of pike predators, and theories which assume that schools function strategically merely to reduce the probability of encountering a predator, break down.
The Annual Food Consumption and Prey Preferences of Pike (Esox lucius) in the River Frome, Dorset
The proportion of food used for maintenance by each age-group increased from 24.3% at age 1 to 77.5% atage 10 years, and it is suggested that, in game fisheries, the removal of coarse fish is suggested.