Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect

@article{Yosef2005PredatorEA,
  title={Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect},
  author={Reuven Yosef and Douglas W. Whitman},
  journal={Evolutionary Ecology},
  year={2005},
  volume={6},
  pages={527-536}
}
SummaryThe lubber grasshopper,Romalea guttata, is large, aposematic, and extremely toxic. In feeding trials with 21 bird and lizard species, none were able to consume this chemically defended prey. Predators that attempted to eat lubbers, often gagged, regurgitated, and sometimes died. Loggerhead shrikes,Lanius ludovicianus, regularly impale this toxic prey in peninsular Florida. They, like other bird species, are unable to consume fresh lubbers. However, our tests show that they are able to… 
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