Predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons

  title={Predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons},
  author={Matthew C. Metz and Douglas J. Emlen and Daniel R. Stahler and Daniel R. MacNulty and Douglas W. Smith and Mark Hebblewhite},
  journal={Nature Ecology \& Evolution},
Sexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. Many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. Here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator–prey system in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific… 
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