Predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons

@article{Metz2018PredationST,
  title={Predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons},
  author={Matthew C. Metz and Douglas J. Emlen and Daniel R. Stahler and Daniel R. MacNulty and Douglas W. Smith and Mark Hebblewhite},
  journal={Nature Ecology \& Evolution},
  year={2018},
  volume={2},
  pages={1619-1625}
}
Sexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. Many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. Here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator–prey system in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific… 
Anti-predator behaviour depends on male weapon size
TLDR
This study investigates the relationship between male weapon size and tonic immobility in the beetle Gnathocerus cornutus and suggests that the male weapon trait affects anti-predator tactics.
Ecological Consequences Of Sexually Selected Traits: An Eco-Evolutionary Perspective
TLDR
Evidence is summarized, primarily from vertebrate studies under field conditions, which shows sexually selected traits have ecological effects; and that their evolution has diverse influences on ecological systems.
Genetic tagging in the Anthropocene: scaling ecology from alleles to ecosystems.
TLDR
The application of, and ecological inferences from, new analytical techniques applied to genetically tagged individuals are outlined, this approach with conventional methods are contrasted, and how genetic tagging can be better applied to address outstanding questions in ecology are described.
Aposematism in mammals
TLDR
It is shown that black-and-white coloration in mammals is multifunctional, that it serves to warn predators of several defenses other than noxious anal secretions, and that aposematism in mammal is not restricted to carnivores.
Designing a fence that enables free passage of wildlife while containing reintroduced bison: a multispecies evaluation
Reintroductions of extirpated species are an important global conservation tool, yet can be challenging for wide-ranging species. Fences that help anchor reintroduced species to a target area may
Antiquity and fundamental processes of the antler cycle in Cervidae (Mammalia)
TLDR
The diverse histological analyses indicate that primary processes and mechanisms of the modern antler cycle were not gradually acquired during evolution, but were fundamental from the earliest record of antler evolution and, hence, explanations why deer shed antlers have to be rooted in basic histogenetic mechanisms.
Large and exaggerated sexually selected weapons comprise high proportions of metabolically inexpensive exoskeleton
TLDR
The cost-minimization hypothesis is tested using proportional tissue composition as a proxy for energetic maintenance costs in snapping shrimp and fiddler crabs and, as predicted, larger weapons comprised proportionally less soft tissue mass and more exoskeleton mass than smaller weapons.
Antlers Are Shaped as Elements of Concave Surfaces that Reflect and Concentrate Incoming Sounds
In 1917 D’Arcy Thompson observed that the pair of antlers of a red deer, a sambur or a wapiti Make up between them a single surface that is more or less spherical or occasionally an ellipsoidal
Grizzly bear population dynamics across productivity and human influence gradients
......................................................................................................................................... ii Preface
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 77 REFERENCES
Predator preference for brightly colored males in the guppy: a viability cost for a sexually selected trait
TLDR
This study reports a direct fitness cost for sexually selected, bright body-color patterns in males in the form of an associated greater risk of mortality to predation and corroborates the generally accepted paradigm that directional predation by visual fish predators against brightly colored, adult male guppies underlies the evolution of the known divergent color patterns in natural guppy populations that experience different intensities of predation.
Comparative Patterns of Predation by Cougars and Recolonizing Wolves in Montana's Madison Range
TLDR
It is concluded that shifts by prey toStructurally complex refugia were attempts by formerly naïve prey to lessen predation risk from wolves; nevertheless, shifting to more structurally complexRefugia might have made prey more vulnerable to cougars.
Assessing differential prey selection patterns between two sympatric large carnivores
TLDR
It is concluded that the disparity in prey selection and hunting habitat between predators probably was a function of predator-specific hunting behavior and capture success, where the longer prey chases and lower capture success of wolf packs mandated a stronger selection for disadvantaged prey.
ANTLER SIZE IN RED DEER: HERITABILITY AND SELECTION BUT NO EVOLUTION
TLDR
Estimates of the selection on and the heritability of a male secondary sexual weapon in a wild population: antler size in red deer are consistent with the hypothesis that a heritable trait under directional selection will not evolve if associations between the measured trait and fitness are determined by environmental covariances.
Antlers honestly advertise sperm production and quality
TLDR
Red deer antlers could signal male fertility to females, the ability to avoid sperm depletion throughout the reproductive season and/or the competitive ability of ejaculates, and a global measure of relative antler size and complexity is associated with relative testes size and sperm velocity.
Patterns of predation in a diverse predator–prey system
TLDR
Biodiversity allows both predation (top-down) and resource limitation (bottom-up) to act simultaneously to affect herbivore populations.
Antler Size Provides an Honest Signal of Male Phenotypic Quality in Roe Deer
TLDR
Antler size may provide an honest signal of male phenotypic quality in roe deer, suggesting the evolution of two reproductive tactics: heavy old males invested particularly heavily in antler growth (potsentially remaining competitive for territories), whereas light old males grew small antlers (potentially abandoning territory defense).
Population Consequences of Predation-Sensitive Foraging: The Serengeti Wildebeest
TLDR
It is suggested that body condition affects the vulnerability of individual wildebeest to predation, and predation jointly limits the population with intraspecific competition by removing animals from the population that are in better condition than those that are starving.
Predator foraging response to a resurgent dangerous prey
TLDR
The overarching importance of prey vulnerability to understanding the prey preferences of generalist predators in ecological communities with dangerous prey is demonstrated, demonstrating the potential for switching and its stabilizing influence on population dynamics.
Changing vulnerability to predation related to season and sex in an African ungulate assemblage
TLDR
Shifts in susceptibility to predation over the seasonal cycle corresponded with rainfall-related variation in the annual representation of these ungulate species in lion kills, and the availability of vulnerable prey species, age and sex classes at different stages of the seasons helps maintain a high abundance of lions.
...
...