Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likelyinfluence on other natural enemies

@article{Battisti2004PredationBT,
  title={Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likelyinfluence on other natural enemies},
  author={Andrea Battisti and Maria Martha Bernardi and C. Ghiraldo},
  journal={BioControl},
  year={2004},
  volume={45},
  pages={311-323}
}
The hoopoe (Upupa epops L.) is an insectivorousbird often preying on larvae and pupae of the pineprocessionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoeapityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller), the mostimportant defoliator of pines in Southern Europe andNorthern Africa. The first half of the breeding seasonof this migratory bird coincides with the pupal stageof the insect. Bird predation of pupae was quantifiedin two years in a Pinus nigra stand of northernItaly by periodic counting of the empty cocoons lefton the… Expand

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