Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likelyinfluence on other natural enemies

@article{Battisti2004PredationBT,
  title={Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likelyinfluence on other natural enemies},
  author={Andrea Battisti and Maria Martha Bernardi and C. Ghiraldo},
  journal={BioControl},
  year={2004},
  volume={45},
  pages={311-323}
}
The hoopoe (Upupa epops L.) is an insectivorousbird often preying on larvae and pupae of the pineprocessionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoeapityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller), the mostimportant defoliator of pines in Southern Europe andNorthern Africa. The first half of the breeding seasonof this migratory bird coincides with the pupal stageof the insect. Bird predation of pupae was quantifiedin two years in a Pinus nigra stand of northernItaly by periodic counting of the empty cocoons lefton the… 

Interactions between pupae of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) and parasitoids in a Pinus forest

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Observational data indicated that dipteran and hymenopteran were the most abundant parasitoids to emerge from moth pupae, and the importance of carefully determining environmental effects on host–parasitoid relations is stressed.

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The earliest breeding start for this species was recorded in the study area, indicating that Portuguese coastal pines provide good breeding conditions earlier than in other areas of Europe and North Africa.

Response of Passerine Birds to an Irruption of a Pine Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea Pityocampa Population with a Shifted Phenology

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Results indicate that this important Mediterranean defoliator may have a positive effect on the canopy gleaners and on some species that are able to act as its predators.

Predators and Parasitoids of Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams) in Western Mediterranean Region in Turkey

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Natural enemies emerged from Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Sciffermüller) (Lepidoptera Notodontidae) pupae in Southern Italy

TLDR
The moths and the parasitoid species emerged sequentially and, although these natural enemies show irregular distribution, they together controlled up to 60% of T. pityocampa pupae.

Selection of foraging habitat and diet of the Hoopoe Upupa epops in the mosaic-like cultural landscape of Goričko (NE Slovenia)

TLDR
The following measures are proposed for effective Hoopoe conservation in the Goričko area: maintaining the present range of existing unimproved meadows, stopping the conversion of meadows into fields, restoring fields to meadow, prohibiting the use of pesticides targeting Mole crickets.

Egg parasitoids of the pine processionary moth and their occurrence in Venosta/Vinschgau

The egg parasitoids of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa are briefly presented, together with a simplified guide to their morphological identification. Three major, two minor, and

Pupation Site Selection and Enemy Avoidance in the Introduced Pine Sawfly (Diprion similis)

TLDR
Because Pine Sawflies were twice as likely to be killed by predators than by parasitoids during the cocoon stage, inaccessibility may be the most important factor for selecting pupation sites.

Ecological Predictors of Pupal Survival in a Common North American Butterfly.

TLDR
Surprisingly, measures of both cumulative and daily pupal predation were significantly higher during the relatively short (10-14 d) nondiapausing generations, compared with the diapausing (winter) generations, despite a nearly 20-fold longer pupal duration recorded for the latter.
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References

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SummaryThe author gives a general account of the parasites and predators ofThaumetopoea pityocampa already known.From a personnal inquiry in 31 localities in France he obtained 4 egg-parasites, 8

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In this paper insectivorous birds are considered as "adaptive strategies," that is, as adaptations or sets of adaptations to the spatial and temporal patterning of the environment.

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Various stages of Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams were found to be affected by 7 parasitoids, 21 predators and 6 entomopathogenic organisms, the most common being Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Merc.) (Hym.,

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The value of the parasitoid guild as an ecological unit that both classifies the functional ecology of Parasitoid species and the structure of parasitoids communities is discussed.

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TLDR
It is suggested that food web size is less important than body size in determining interaction strength between community members in a tropical rain forest canopy, particularly with respect to orb spiders and herbivory.

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TLDR
Three indigenous species of Thaumetopoea occur in Israel: T. wilkinsoni Tams, which feeds on pines and is a major pest of forests and ornamentals, and T. jordana, which develops on Rhus tripartita, a thorny shrub of arid areas.

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Exclusion experiments show that birds significantly reduce densities of larval Lepidoptera on forest understory vegetation. When insect densities are already low, bird predation may act both as a

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TLDR
La population des prédateurs peut aussi varier selon le degré de densité des proies, c'est-à-dire qu'ils réduisent l'amplitude des fluctuations de the population des Proies.

Contact dermatitis (erucism) produced by processionary caterpillars (Genus Thaumetopoea) 1

Urticating hairs of Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillars cause cutaneous reaction in men and animals. This contact dermatitis is known as erucism. Conjunctivitis, sometimes keratitis and even uveitis