Predation among armored arachnids: Bothriurus bonariensis (Scorpions, Bothriuridae) versus four species of harvestmen (Harvestmen, Gonyleptidae)

  title={Predation among armored arachnids: Bothriurus bonariensis (Scorpions, Bothriuridae) versus four species of harvestmen (Harvestmen, Gonyleptidae)},
  author={Andrea Alb{\'i}n and Carlos A Toscano-Gadea},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},

Predatory Versatility in Females of the Scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae): Overcoming Prey with Different Defensive Mechanisms

The results show that scorpions are able to use different predatory strategies which might allow them to include prey with diverse defensive strategies in their diet.

Linking toxicity and predation in a venomous arthropod: the case of Tityus fuhrmanni (Scorpiones: Buthidae), a generalist predator scorpion

The results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.

Feeding behavior of the Iranian dangerous scorpion species in the laboratory

Investigation of the feeding behavior of dangerous Iranian scorpions in the laboratory found hunting was similar between H. lepturus, A. crassicauda, M. eupeus, and O. doriae, but cannibalism and carnivorism behavior of these species were different.

Intraspecific spination pattern in Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg, 1876) (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae) reviewed: revalidation of the harvestman genus Opisthoplatus, with two new synonymies and biogeographical notes on their morphs

The present study of several Argentinean/southern Brazilian nominal species revealed well‐defined patterns of an uncommon mirror asymmetry in the armature of femur IV of males, which has not been reported previously.

Sexual differences in weaponry and defensive behavior in a neotropical harvestman

Evidence is provided that due to sexual dimorphism, alternative antipredatory behaviors may have been selected in the different sexes in M. cuspidatus.

Can contrasting habitats influence predatory behavior in tropical forest scorpions?

It is found that Caatinga scorpions moved approximately 40% more after prey capture than the Atlantic Forest species, suggesting that animals from contrasting habitats may show different prey capture strategies.

Foraging Strategies of Cursorial and Ambush Spiders

This chapter summarizes the knowledge on these topics with regard to Neotropical cursorial and ambush spiders, detecting gaps and areas better covered within the topics above, and attempts to suggest promising model species to investigate these different steps of foraging in these animals.

Armed stem to stinger: a review of the ecological roles of scorpion weapons

The literature on the functioning and ecological role of both the chelae and the telson is discussed in detail and the differences in morphology or usage between species or higher taxonomic groups, or between genders, are given.

The sensory equipment of a sandokanid: An extreme case of tarsal reduction in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores)

Using scanning electron microscopy, the sensory equipment in an extreme case of reduction in tarsal articles in the harvestman Sandokan truncatus (Sandokanidae), which bears a single tarsomere in all legs, is investigated and the potential consequences of this reduction are investigated.



Behavioral analysis of the interaction between the spitting spider Scytodes globula (Araneae: Scytodidae) and the harvestman Discocyrtus invalidus (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

This is the first detailed and quantified description of an interaction between a spitting spider and a harvestman and the general conclusions are that S. globula avoids preying on D. invalidus, S. Globula behaves differently when attacking harvestmen and crickets and the scent gland secretions of D.validus do not play a direct role in this predator-prey interaction.


It is concluded that adult E. cyclothorax do avoid preying on M. cuspidatus, even after severe starvation, suggesting that the latter is recognized by the former by its chemical properties.

Defences of a Neotropical harvestman against different levels of threat by the recluse spider

Surprisingly, their mostly known defensive behaviours (chemical defence, tanathosis, pinching with chelicerae and pedipalps) were not seen even in the high threat situation.

Daily activity schedule, gregariousness, and defensive behaviour in the Neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

The activity schedule of G. longipes shows that individuals need to leave the cave periodically to forage, and therefore the population can be considered trogloxene, and data on the food items collection indicate that the harvestman is a generalist predator which also feeds on dead animal matter.

Population ecology ofGoniosoma spelaeum, a cavernicolous harvestman from south‐eastern Brazil (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

Goniosoma spelaeum (Mello-Leitao) is a widespread trogloxene harvestman in caves of the Ribeira Valley in Sao Paulo State that shows a high degree of philopartry, and recapture rate was high.

First experimental evidence that a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) detects odors of non-rotten dead prey by olfaction

The data suggest that olfactory receptors occur on the legs of these harvestmen and that D. pectinifemur might choose dietary items based on olfaction and contrast with a previous study on another species, showing that the authors should not generalize results obtained for one species.


An ethogram for the harvestman Ilhaia cuspidata is provided and the daily activity pattern of captive individuals is described and a comparison between the behavioral repertory of this species with that of the syntopic Discocyrtus oliverioi is provided.

Chemical Defense in Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): Do Benzoquinone Secretions Deter Invertebrate and Vertebrate Predators?

The results indicate that secretions containing the 1,4-benzoquinones released by G. longipes can be an effective defense against predation, and that the effectiveness of the secretion is dependent on the predator type.