Predictors of pre- and post-competition affective states in male martial artists: a multilevel interactional approach
The relationship between preperformance mood, measured by the Profile of Mood States inventory, and subsequent athletic performance has been the focus of considerable research. Presumably, athletes with less positive mood profiles should be outperformed by those with more favorable profiles. The results presented so far in the literature are equivocal. One possible explanation is that more stable trait characteristics might medicate mood states prior to competitive situations. In the present study, 8 male golf players, all members of the Swedish National Team, completed a number of trait inventories (Eysenck's Personality Inventory, Locus of Control, Sport Competition Anxiety Test, Self-consciousness Scale) prior to the competitive season. Subsequently, they completed the Profile of Mood States before each game played. Analysis showed that the players' preperformance mood states differed significantly and that these differences were associated with their scores on the trait inventories. Furthermore, preperformance mood states were significantly related to athletic performance for some individuals but not for others. Further research should also include trait measurements to understand better the relationship between mood states and the athletic performance of individual athletes.