Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity.

  title={Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity.},
  author={Walter C. Prozialeck and Joshua R Edwards and Vishal S. Vaidya and Joseph V. Bonventre},
  journal={Toxicology and applied pharmacology},
  volume={238 3},
As a result of the widespread use of Cd in industry and its extensive dissemination in the environment, there has been considerable interest in the identification of early biomarkers of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is not detectable in normal kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine following ischemic or nephrotoxic injury. Recent studies utilizing a sub-chronic model of Cd exposure in the rat have shown that Kim-1 is an early urinary marker of… CONTINUE READING