PURPOSE To assess the intrasession and intersession precision of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) measured using a commercial Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (Zywave; Bausch & Lomb) in refractive surgery candidates. DESIGN Prospective, experimental study of a device. METHODS To analyze intrasession repeatability, 1 experienced examiner measured 30 healthy eyes 5 times successively. To study intersession reproducibility, the same clinician obtained measurements from another 30 eyes in 2 consecutive sessions at the same time of day 1 week apart. RESULTS For intrasession repeatability, excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained for total ocular aberrations, total HOAs, and second-order terms (ICC, > 0.94). The ICCs for third-order terms also were high (ICCs, > 0.87); however, fourth-order ICCs varied from 0.71 to 0.90 (Z(4)(0) = 0.90); and fifth-order ICCs were less than 0.85. For intersession reproducibility, only total ocular aberrations, total ocular HOAs, second-order terms, Z(4)(0), Z(3)(1), and Z(3-)(3) had ICCs of 0.90 or more. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement (were clinically too wide for most higher-order Zernike terms, especially for the third-order terms (> 0.21 μm). CONCLUSIONS Total ocular aberrations, total HOAs, and second-order terms can be measured reliably by Zywave aberrometry without anatomic recognition. Third-order terms and Z(4)(0) are repeatable, but not as reproducible between visits. Fourth-order terms, except for Z(4)(0), and fifth-order terms are not sufficiently reliable for clinical decision making or treatment. Because the variability of Zywave can be a major limitation of a truly successful wavefront-guided excimer laser procedure, surgeons should consider treating HOA magnitudes that are more than the intrasession repeatability values (2.77 × S(w)) as those presented in this study.