# Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms

@article{Rosi2014PrecisionMO, title={Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms}, author={Gabriele Rosi and Fiodor Sorrentino and L. Cacciapuoti and Marco Prevedelli and Guglielmo Maria Tino}, journal={Nature}, year={2014}, volume={510}, pages={518-521} }

About 300 experiments have tried to determine the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, so far, but large discrepancies in the results have made it impossible to know its value precisely. The weakness of the gravitational interaction and the impossibility of shielding the effects of gravity make it very difficult to measure G while keeping systematic effects under control. Most previous experiments performed were based on the torsion pendulum or torsion balance scheme as in the…

## 474 Citations

### Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods

- PhysicsNature
- 2018

Two independent determinations of G are reported using torsion pendulum experiments with the time-of-swing method and the angular-acceleration-feedback method, yielding results with relative standard uncertainties of 11.6 parts per million—the lowest uncertainty reported until now.

### Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant

- PhysicsNational science review
- 2020

The history of the G measurement is briefly reviewed, and eleven values of G adopted in CODATA 2014 after 2000 are introduced and the latest two values published in 2018 are introduced using two independent methods.

### Measurement of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G by precision displacement sensors

- PhysicsClassical and Quantum Gravity
- 2020

The Newtonian constant of gravitation G historically has the largest relative uncertainty over all other fundamental constants with some discrepancies in values between different measurements. We…

### Atom interferometers’ phases at the presence of heavy masses; their use to measure Newtonian gravitational constant; optimization, error model, perspectives

- Physics
- 2017

The contribution to the phase of the atom interferometer caused by the gravity field of a massive test mass is considered. This contribution can be extracted by applying the double difference…

### The Newtonian Gravitational Constant G Interpreted as the Gravitational Inertia of Vacuum - G0. How to Arrange Twelve Precise Experimental Determinations of GZ in their Spread 500 ppm?

- Physics
- 2021

We have newly interpreted the Newtonian gravitational constant G as the gravitational inertia of vacuum G0. The source mass inserted into vacuum decreases this value G0 to GZ on the dependence of the…

### Invited Review Article: Measurements of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G

- PhysicsThe Review of scientific instruments
- 2017

A large array of different instruments ranging from the simple torsion balance to the sophisticated atom interferometer can be used to determine G, which is several orders of magnitudes greater than the relative uncertainties of other fundamental constants.

### Progress in Precise Measurements of the Gravitational Constant

- PhysicsAnnalen der Physik
- 2019

The Newtonian gravitational constant G, which is one of the earliest fundamental constants introduced by human beings, plays an important role in cosmology, astrophysics, geophysics, metrology, and…

### Measurement of gravitational coupling between millimetre-sized masses.

- Physics, GeologyNature
- 2021

Gravity coupling between two gold spheres of 1 millimetre radius is shown, thereby entering the regime of sub-100-milligram sources of gravity and opening the way to the unexplored frontier of microscopic source masses, which will enable studies of fundamental interactions and provide a path towards exploring the quantum nature of gravity.

### A proposal for designing the source mass to accurately determine G with atom interferometry

- PhysicsMetrologia
- 2021

The Newtonian gravitational constant G has proved to be one of the most difficult constants to measure in physics. The improvement of measuring G with the atomic interferometry method is…

### Newtonian gravitational constant measurement. All atomic variables become extreme when using a source mass consisting of three or more parts

- Physics
- 2020

Atomic interferometry methods used to measure the Newtonian gravitational constant. To improve the accuracy, one should measure the phase of an atomic interferometer at extreme values of atomic…

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