Prebiotic Synthesis: Phosphorylation in Aqueous Solution

  title={Prebiotic Synthesis: Phosphorylation in Aqueous Solution},
  author={Rolf Lohrmann and Leslie E. Orgel},
  pages={64 - 66}
Formation of uridine-5'-phosphate from uridine and inorganic phosphate in aqueous solution is effected by the following condensing agents: cyanogen, cyanoformamide, cyanate, cyanamide, thioformate, ethylisocyanide, and a watersoluble carbodiimide. The yields are always small, even when a large excess of condensing agent is used. The cyclization of uridine-3'-(2')-phosphate occurs under the same conditions but in much greater yield. 
Prebiotic synthesis and reactions of nucleosides and nucleotides.
Diiminosuccinonitrile (DISN) has been investigated as a potential prebiotic phosphorylating agent and the reaction of DISN and BrCN with uridine-5'-phosphate and uridine results in the formation of 2, 2'-anhydronucleotides and 2,2'-anHydronucleosides respectively, and other reaction products resulting from an initial reaction at the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. Expand
Urea-Inorganic Phosphate Mixtures as Prebiotic Phosphorylating Agents
The addition of urea and ammonium chloride to the reaction mixture permits phosphorylation in high yield with neutral or basic phosphates at temperatures in the range of 65� to 100�C and it is believed that this procedure plausible model for prebiotic phosphorylated nucleosides. Expand
Prebiotic phosphorylation. II. Nucleotide synthesis in the reaction system apatite-cyanogen-water.
An evolutionary continuum leading from the cosmically abundant CN moiety to the establishment of conditions favorable for phosphorylation on the primitive earth is suggested. Expand
The prebiotic chemistry of nucleotides
The DISN-mediated phosphorylation of uridine to uridine monophosphate does not proceed efficiently in aqueous solution, and the clay mineral catalysis of the cyclization of adenosine-3′-phosphate was investigated using homoionic montmorillonites. Expand
The possible role of inorganic thiophosphate as a prebiotic phosphorylating agent
A mixture of 5′ and 3′-dTMP were identified via chromatography, elementary analysis and NMR spectroscopy, and can be used to phosphorylate 2′-deoxythymidine in organic solvents and in the solid state. Expand
Prebiotic condensation reactions in an aqueous medium: A review of condensing agents
From both a chemical as well as biological point of view the polyphosphates appear to be the most plausible general prebiotic condensing agent. Expand
Prebiotic phosphorylation-nucleotide synthesis with apatite.
  • A. Schwartz
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • 1972
The nature and concentrations of the materials employed are believed to make this model of prebiotic nucleotide synthesis the first reported to be consistent with geological constraints. Expand
Synthesis of Cytidine Ribonucleotides by Stepwise Assembly of the Heterocycle on a Sugar Phosphate
It is shown that a process in which the base is assembled in stages on a sugar phosphate can produce cytidine nucleotides, and the sequential action of cyanamide and cyanoacetylene on arabinose‐3‐phosphate produces cytidine‐2′, 3′‐cyclophosphate and arabinocytidine‐3′‐Phosphate. Expand
Prebiotic Formation of ADP and ATP from AMP, Calcium Phosphates and Cyanate in Aqueous Solution
  • Y. Yamagata
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
  • 2004
Adenosine-5′-triphosphate was synthesized by the phosphorylation of adenosine-5′-diphosphate in aqueous solution containing cyanate as a condensing reagent and insoluble calcium phosphate producedExpand
Cyanamide as a prebiotic phosphate activating agent – catalysis by simple 2-oxoacid salts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7cc07517k
Cyanamide as a fast and efficient prebiotic phosphate activating agent with catalysis by glyoxylate or pyruvate.


Phosphorylation with Inorganic Phosphates at Moderate Temperatures
Uridine phosphates may be obtained by heating uridine with inorganic phosphates for 9 months at temperatures as low as 65�C to form uridine-5'-phosphate, which undergoes some dephosphorylation to give uridine. Expand
Cyanamide Formation under Primitive Earth Conditions
The dimer of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, is formed upon ultraviolet irradiation of dilute cyanide solutions, and by the electron irradiation of a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water. Thus cyanamideExpand
It appears that the 'phosphorus problem' is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be and an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus is suggested. Expand
Nucleotide Synthesis under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions
The nucleosides adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, and thymidine were each heated with inorganic phosphate. Nucleoside monophosphates were formed in appreciable yield. This result has a bearingExpand
Peptide Synthesis from Amino Acids in Aqueous Solution
Four dipeptides and a tripeptide were formed when an aqueous solution of glycine and leucine was exposed to ultraviolet light in the presence of cyanamide.
Dicyandiamide: Possible Role in Peptide Synthesis during Chemical Evolution
Dicyandiamide promotes certain dehydration condensations under conditions possible on primitive Earth and its effect in promoting peptide syntheses was studied. Expand
Motility of the Turtle Embryo, Chelydra serpentina (Linn�)
Motility of the turtles closely resembled that previously described for chick embryos at similar stages of development during the first third of the incubation period. Expand
Collection Czech
  • Chem. Commun
  • 1967
Science 148, 1221 (1965); J
  • Skoda and J. Moravek, Tetrahedron Letters 1966, 4167 (1966); J. Moravek and J. Skoda, Collection Czech. Chem. Commun. 32, 206 (1967); J. Moravek, Tetrahedron Letters
  • 1967