Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

  title={Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations},
  author={Brad Jon Schoenfeld and Alan Albert Aragon and Colin D. Wilborn and Stacie L. Urbina and Sara E. Hayward and James W. Krieger},
The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. [] Key Method Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population.

Effects of Protein Supplementation on Performance and Recovery in Resistance and Endurance Training

It appears that peri-exercise protein intake, particularly in the post-training period, plays a potentially useful role in terms of optimizing physical performance and positively influencing the subsequent recovery processes for both resistance training and endurance exercise.

Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing.

Effects of whey protein supplementation prior to, and following, resistance exercise on body composition and training responses: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

The results suggest that the composition and timing of protein intake are more important than the total amount.

Effects of post exercise protein supplementation on markers of bone turnover in adolescent swimmers

The results shed light on the potential importance of protein consumed shortly after intense swimming in promoting positive bone turnover responses up to 24 h following exercise in adolescent athletes.

Intake of whey isolate supplement and muscle mass gains in young healthy adults when combined with resistance training: a blinded randomized clinical trial (pilot study).

BACKGROUND Whey protein is consumed worldwide by athletes due to its alleged benefits on muscle mass and strength. Because of its rich branched chain amino acids content, namely leucine, whey appears

Muscle Hypertrophy Response Is Affected by Previous Resistance Training Volume in Trained Individuals

To compare gains in muscle mass of trained individuals after a resistance training (RT) protocol with standardized (i.e., nonindividualized) volume (N-IND), with an RT protocol using individualized volume (IND), individualizing the weekly training volume of research protocols provides greater gains in Muscle CSA.

Achieving an Optimal Fat Loss Phase in Resistance-Trained Athletes: A Narrative Review

In this narrative review, the scientific literature is evaluated, and dietary–nutritional and supplementation recommendations for the weight loss phase of resistance-trained athletes are provided.

The Role of Protein Intake and its Timing on Body Composition and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

The results support the positive impact of protein supplementation on LBM of adults and older adults, independently of intake timing and effects on muscle strength and synthesis are less clear and need further investigation.



Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Examining the effects of supplement timing compared with supplementation in the hours not close to the workout on muscle-fiber hypertrophy, strength, and body composition during a 10-wk RE program concluded that supplement timing represents a simple but effective strategy that enhances the adaptations desired from RE-training.

Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained men.

Results indicate that the time of protein-supplement ingestion in resistance-trained athletes during a 10-wk training program does not provide any added benefit to strength, power, or body-composition changes.

Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

It is concluded that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training.

The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis

Results refute the commonly held belief that the timing of protein intake in and around a training session is critical to muscular adaptations and indicate that consuming adequate protein in combination with resistance exercise is the key factor for maximizing muscle protein accretion.

Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise.

The results indicate that the response of net muscleprotein synthesis to consumption of an EAC solution immediately before resistance exercise is greater than that when the solution is consumed after exercise, primarily because of an increase in muscle protein synthesis as a result of increased delivery of amino acids to the leg.

Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength

Ten-wks of resistance training with 20 g protein and amino acids ingested 1 h before and after exercise is more effective than carbohydrate placebo in up-regulating markers of muscle protein synthesis and anabolism along with subsequent improvements in muscle performance.

The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes.

The combination of a controlled undulating resistance training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition and there does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins.

Influence of Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Adaptations in Well-Trained Men

The findings suggest a potentially superior hypertrophic benefit to higher weekly resistance training frequencies, as shown in results showed significantly greater increases in forearm flexor MT for TOTAL compared with SPLIT.

Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men

It is indicated that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise.

The response of net muscle protein balance to timing of intact protein ingestion does not respond as does that of the combination of free amino acids and carbohydrate, and net amino acid balance switched from negative to positive following ingestion of proteins at either time.