Pre-trained models for natural language processing: A survey

  title={Pre-trained models for natural language processing: A survey},
  author={Xipeng Qiu and Tianxiang Sun and Yige Xu and Yunfan Shao and Ning Dai and Xuanjing Huang},
  journal={Science China Technological Sciences},
  pages={1872 - 1897}
Recently, the emergence of pre-trained models (PTMs) has brought natural language processing (NLP) to a new era. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of PTMs for NLP. We first briefly introduce language representation learning and its research progress. Then we systematically categorize existing PTMs based on a taxonomy from four different perspectives. Next, we describe how to adapt the knowledge of PTMs to downstream tasks. Finally, we outline some potential directions of PTMs… 

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