Pre-incisional epidural ketamine, morphine and bupivacaine combined with epidural and general anaesthesia provides pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

@article{Wu2000PreincisionalEK,
  title={Pre-incisional epidural ketamine, morphine and bupivacaine combined with epidural and general anaesthesia provides pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.},
  author={C T Wu and C C Yeh and Joseph Che-Chin Yu and Min Mi Lee and Pao Luh Tao and Shung-Tai Ho and C S Wong},
  journal={Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica},
  year={2000},
  volume={44 1},
  pages={63-8}
}
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonists provide a pre-emptive analgesic effect in humans. This study investigated the benefits of pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery, using pre-incisional epidural ketamine + morphine + bupivacaine (K+M+B) treatment for achieving postoperative pain relief. METHODS Sixty ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for upper abdominal surgery were allocated to three groups in a randomized, single-blinded study… CONTINUE READING
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