Pre‐mission invasion of Erodium cicutarium in California

@article{Mensing1998PremissionIO,
  title={Pre‐mission invasion of Erodium cicutarium in California},
  author={Scott A. Mensing and Roger A. Byrne},
  journal={Journal of Biogeography},
  year={1998},
  volume={25}
}
Abstract. The California grassland is dominated by alien plant species. It is generally assumed that the invasion of aliens began with the initial introduction of livestock by Spanish missionaries in 1769. In this paper we present pollen evidence which indicates that Erodium cicutarium, a Mediterranean annual, was well established in the Santa Barbara region several years before the founding of the first California mission at San Diego in 1769. Historical evidence shows that it took the Spanish… 

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Seed and establishment limitation contribute to long-term native forb declines in California grasslands.

Exotic competition is likely only one factor contributing to local declines of native species in invaded ecosystems, with a combination of propagule limitation, site quality, and land use history also playing important and interactive roles in native plant recruitment.
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